Table 1

Characteristics of participants at baseline by the incidence of LEA during follow-up

Cohorts with type 1 diabetesPCohorts with type 2 diabetesP
No LEAIncident LEANo LEAIncident LEA
n (%)671 (94.5)39 (5.5)4,438 (97.5)115 (2.5)
GENESIS cohort, n (%)489 (97.2)14 (2.8)<0.0001
GENEDIAB cohort, n (%)182 (87.9)25 (12.1)
DIABHYCAR cohort, n (%)3,064 (98.8)37 (1.2)<0.0001
SURDIAGENE cohort, n (%)1,374 (94.6)78 (5.4)
Male sex, n (%)366 (55)24 (62)0.413,008 (68)102 (89)<0.0001
Age, years43 ± 1148 ± 110.00665 ± 967 ± 90.10
Duration of diabetes, years27 ± 930 ± 80.0412 ± 915 ± 10<0.0001
BMI, kg/m224.3 ± 3.524.0 ± 3.70.5830.0 ± 5.330.1 ± 4.40.80
Systolic BP, mmHg133 ± 19143 ± 190.003141 ± 16143 ± 160.16
Diastolic BP, mmHg77 ± 1178 ± 90.5779 ± 1078 ± 110.20
Arterial hypertension, n (%)336 (50)31 (79)0.00042,847 (64)96 (83)<0.0001
Current tobacco smoking, n (%)191 (29)8 (22)0.45578 (13)18 (16)0.32
Previous MI, n (%)30 (5)7 (18)0.003381 (8.6)14 (12.2)0.18
Previous stroke, n (%)21 (3)3 (8)0.13195 (4.4)8 (7.0)0.17
Previous LEA, n (%)34 (5)19 (49)<0.000148 (1.1)24 (20.9)<0.0001
Copeptin, pmol/L4.8 [6.3]9.6 [23.7]0.00037.0 [7.1]9.1 [12.1]<0.0001
HbA1c, %8.5 ± 1.49.2 ± 2.00.0077.8 ± 1.78.0 ± 1.80.38
HbA1c, mmol/mol70 ± 1677 ± 210.00762 ± 1864 ± 200.38
Total cholesterol, mmol/L*5.8 ± 1.55.6 ± 1.70.555.5 ± 1.25.2 ± 1.30.02
HDL cholesterol, mmol/LNANA1.3 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.40.0007
Triglycerides, mmol/L*1.1 [0.9]1.4 [1.2]0.511.8 [1.3]1.7 [1.1]0.56
Plasma creatinine, μmol/L84 [25]104 [126]0.000287 [29]97 [40]<0.0001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m284 ± 3161 ± 34<0.000174 ± 2065 ± 26<0.0001
UAC, mg/L19 [175]105 [1,086]0.00460 [128]168 [453]<0.0001
UAC stages, n (%)
 Normoalbuminuria333 (50)8 (20.5)0.0002637 (14)17 (15)<0.0001
 Microalbuminuria142 (21)8 (20.5)2,801 (63)45 (39)
 Macroalbuminuria196 (29)23 (59)993 (23)53 (46)
Use of antiplatelet or anticoagulation drugs, n (%)NANA1,277 (29)63 (55)<0.0001
Use of lipid-lowering drugs, n (%)55 (8)6 (15)0.141,195 (27)15 (13)0.0006
Use of BP-lowering drugs, n (%)336 (50)31 (79)0.00042,846 (64)95 (83)<0.0001
Use of ACE-I or ARB, n (%)279 (42)21 (54)0.181,034 (23)65 (57)<0.0001
Use of diuretics, n (%)280 (42)21 (54)0.181,302 (29)57 (50)<0.0001
Use of insulin, n (%)671 (100)39 (100)0.99821 (19)53 (46)<0.0001
  • Data are expressed as means ± SD or median [interquartile range] unless otherwise indicated. Differences between groups are assessed by Student t test, Wilcoxon test, or Fischer exact test. eGFR computed by CKD-EPI formula. ACE-I, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; MI, myocardial infarction; NA, no available data.

  • * Data from cohorts with type 1 diabetes available only for GENEDIAB participants. P < 0.05 was significant.