Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants before and after PSM

Before PSMAfter PSM
LinagliptinGlimepirideLinagliptinGlimepiride
n = 24,842n = 139,334St. Diff.n = 24,131n = 24,131St. Diff.
Baseline characteristics
 Age, mean (SD), years70.32 (7.76)71.18 (7.72)−0.1170.40 (7.76)70.42 (7.71)0.00
 Male, n (%)11,872 (47.8)68,926 (49.5)−0.0311,519 (47.7)11,512 (47.7)0.00
 White race, n (%)111,554 (71.0)71,226 (79.8)−0.2111,396 (71.8)11,485 (72.3)−0.01
Burden of comorbidities
 Combined comorbidity score, mean (SD)21.49 (1.27)1.21 (1.21)0.231.48 (1.26)1.47 (1.26)0.01
 Frailty score, mean (SD)30.16 (0.05)0.16 (0.05)0.000.16 (0.05)0.16 (0.05)0.00
Diabetes-related complications, n (%)
 Diabetic nephropathy1,771 (7.1)6,350 (4.6)0.111,655 (6.9)1,646 (6.8)0.00
 Diabetic retinopathy1,172 (4.7)5,754 (4.1)0.031,132 (4.7)1,103 (4.6)0.00
 Diabetes with ophthalmic conditions or procedures656 (2.6)3,363 (2.4)0.01632 (2.6)625 (2.6)0.00
 Diabetic neuropathy2,765 (11.1)14,093 (10.1)0.032,663 (11.0)2,656 (11.0)0.00
 Diabetes with peripheral circulatory disorders1,099 (4.4)5,309 (3.8)0.031,050 (4.4)1,039 (4.3)0.00
 Hypoglycemia708 (2.9)3,212 (2.3)0.04684 (2.8)695 (2.9)−0.01
 Hyperglycemia997 (4.0)3,856 (2.8)0.07961 (4.0)968 (4.0)0.00
 Disorders of fluid electrolyte and acid-base balance1,114 (4.5)5,333 (3.8)0.041,083 (4.5)1,097 (4.5)0.00
Baseline diabetes therapy
 No. of antidiabetic drugs at cohort entry, mean (SD)0.81 (0.70)0.63 (0.59)0.280.80 (0.70)0.79 (0.69)0.01
 Any use of metformin, n (%)16,477 (66.3)88,730 (63.7)0.0516,009 (66.3)16,136 (66.9)−0.01
 Any use of sulfonylureas, n (%)8,043 (32.4)21,751 (15.6)0.407,458 (30.9)7,341 (30.4)0.01
 Any use of meglitinides, n (%)358 (1.4)774 (0.6)0.08341 (1.4)293 (1.2)0.02
 Any use of α-glucosidase inhibitors, n (%)84 (0.3)240 (0.2)0.0274 (0.3)92 (0.4)−0.02
Other comorbidities at baseline, n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease6,194 (24.9)33,882 (24.3)0.016,016 (24.9)6,042 (25.0)0.00
 Previous coronary revascularization1,109 (4.5)6,428 (4.6)0.001,088 (4.5)1,096 (4.5)0.00
 Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke1,849 (7.4)9,475 (6.8)0.021,799 (7.5)1,816 (7.5)0.00
 Heart failure915 (3.7)5,144 (3.7)0.00896 (3.7)865 (3.6)0.01
 Peripheral arterial disease or surgery2,101 (8.5)9,331 (6.7)0.072,028 (8.4)2,048 (8.5)0.00
 Hypertension21,592 (86.9)114,186 (82.0)0.1420,940 (86.8)20,985 (87.0)−0.01
 Hyperlipidemia19,154 (77.1)100,099 (71.8)0.1218,581 (77.0)18,583 (77.0)0.00
 Nondiabetic renal dysfunction4,668 (18.8)14,874 (10.7)0.234,385 (18.2)4,164 (17.3)0.02
Other medications, n (%)
 ACE inhibitors10,911 (43.9)66,820 (48.0)−0.0810,670 (44.2)10,603 (43.9)0.01
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers8,526 (34.3)36,352 (26.1)0.188,143 (33.7)8,284 (34.3)−0.01
 β-Blockers10,171 (40.9)55,175 (39.6)0.039,860 (40.9)10,124 (42.0)−0.02
 Loop diuretics3,276 (13.2)16,993 (12.2)0.033,188 (13.2)3,111 (12.9)0.01
 Statins18,362 (73.9)96,296 (69.1)0.1117,782 (73.7)17,772 (73.6)0.00
 Other lipid-lowering drugs4,110 (16.5)18,095 (13.0)0.103,959 (16.4)3,942 (16.3)0.00
 Antiplatelet agents3,902 (15.7)18,521 (13.3)0.073,761 (15.6)3,779 (15.7)0.00
 Oral anticoagulants1,645 (6.6)9,700 (7.0)−0.021,615 (6.7)1,621 (6.7)0.00
Measures of health care utilization
 Hospitalization within prior 30 days, n (%)260 (1.0)1,774 (1.3)−0.03255 (1.1)284 (1.2)−0.01
 Hospitalization during prior 31–180 days, n (%)1,221 (4.9)7,346 (5.3)−0.021,174 (4.9)1,268 (5.3)−0.02
 No. of hospital days, mean (SD)0.23 (1.64)0.25 (1.65)−0.010.24 (1.66)0.25 (1.73)−0.01
 No. of emergency department visits, mean (SD)0.25 (0.88)0.25 (0.88)0.000.24 (0.88)0.25 (0.84)−0.01
 No. of office visits, mean (SD)4.83 (3.62)4.09 (3.34)0.214.77 (3.56)4.81 (3.78)−0.01
 No. of distinct medication prescriptions, mean (SD)9.06 (3.98)8.19 (3.68)0.239.01 (3.96)9.02 (3.89)0.00
  • St. Diff., standardized differences (i.e., the difference in means or proportions divided by the pooled SD).

  • 1Only available in Medicare fee-for-service database.

  • 2See Gagne et al. (26).

  • 3See Kim et al. (27).