Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study participants with versus without incident HF during the study period

ACCORD patients (free from baseline HF)No HF event during follow-upIncident HF event during follow-upP
n8,7568,437319
Demographics
 Female, n (%)3,370 (38.5)3,275 (38.8)95 (29.8)<0.01
 Age (years), n (%)62.7 (6.6)62.6 (6.5)65.3 (6.9)<0.01
 Race, n (%)<0.01
  Black1,622 (18.5)1,558 (18.5)64 (20.1)
  Hispanic658 (7.5)643 (7.6)15 (4.7)
  Other987 (11.3)967 (11.5)20 (6.3)
  White5,489 (62.7)5,269 (62.5)220 (69.0)
 BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)32.1 (5.4)32.1 (5.4)33.0 (5.6)<0.01
 Waist circumference (cm), mean (SD)106.6 (13.6)106.4 (13.5)110.8 (14.6)<0.01
 Current cigarette smoker, n (%)1,078 (12.3)1,031 (12.2)47 (14.7)0.21
 Lives with one or more adults, n (%)371 (4.2)338 (4.0)33 (10.3)<0.01
 Highest level of education, n (%)
  Less than high school graduate1,260 (14.4)1,191 (14.1)69 (21.6)<0.01
  High school graduate or GED2,300 (26.3)2,223 (26.4)77 (24.1)
  Some college or technical school2,891 (33.0)2,770 (32.9)121 (37.9)
  College graduate2,300 (26.3)2,248 (26.7)52 (16.3)
 Alcoholic drinks consumed weekly, mean (SD)1.0 (2.7)1.0 (2.7)0.9 (2.7)0.70
Vital signs at baseline, mean (SD)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)136.4 (16.9)136.3 (16.9)139.4 (18.4)<0.01
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75.0 (10.5)75.1 (10.5)72.5 (11.6)<0.01
 Heart rate (bpm)72.6 (11.7)72.6 (11.7)73.0 (12.2)0.56
Medical history
 History of myocardial infarction, n (%)1,237 (14.1)1,138 (13.5)99 (31.0)<0.01
 History of stroke, n (%)502 (5.7)472 (5.6)30 (9.4)0.01
 History of angina, n (%)928 (10.6)880 (10.4)48 (15.0)0.01
 History of coronary artery bypass graft surgery, n (%)918 (10.5)830 (9.8)88 (27.6)<0.01
 History of percutaneous coronary intervention, n (%)870 (10.1)818 (9.8)52 (18.1)<0.01
 History of other revascularization procedure, n (%)325 (3.7)297 (3.5)28 (8.8)<0.01
 History of foot ulcer requiring antibiotics, n (%)371 (4.2)338 (4.0)33 (10.3)<0.01
 Years of diabetes diagnosis, median (IQR)9.0 (10.0)9.0 (10.0)11.0 (13.0)<0.01
 Years of hyperlipidemia diagnosis, median (IQR)7.0 (12.0)7.0 (11.0)10.0 (15.0)<0.01
 Years of hypertension diagnosis, median (IQR)4.0 (6.0)4.0 (6.0)5.0 (7.3)0.05
 Health Utilities Index Mark 3 score, mean (SD)*0.5 (0.3)0.5 (0.3)0.4 (0.3)<0.01
 Health Utilities Index Mark 2 score, mean (SD)0.6 (0.2)0.6 (0.2)0.51 (0.2)<0.01
Laboratory values, mean (SD)
 Glycated hemoglobin (mg/dL)8.3 (1.1)8.3 (1.1)8.6 (1.1)<0.01
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)183.6 (41.7)183.7 (41.6)180.7 (44.0)0.20
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)190.6 (149.8)190.3 (150.8)197.7 (118.9)0.39
 VLDL cholesterol (mg/dL)36.6 (24.5)36.6 (24.6)38.1 (20.1)0.27
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)105.1 (33.9)105.2 (33.8)104.3 (35.4)0.63
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)41.9 (11.5)42.0 (11.5)38.3 (10.4)<0.01
 Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)171.2 (55.9)171.0 (55.6)180.6 (63.1)0.03
 Alanine aminotransferase (mg/dL)27.8 (16.7)27.9 (16.8)24.3 (10.9)<0.01
 Creatine kinase (mg/dL)139.5 (127.4)139.6 (128.0)136.5 (109.6)0.67
 Potassium (mg/dL)4.5 (0.5)4.5 (0.5)4.5 (0.5)0.31
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.9 (0.2)0.9 (0.2)1.0 (0.3)<0.01
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min)91.5 (27.3)91.8 (27.4)84.3 (23.5)<0.01
 Urinary albumin (mg/dL)10.0 (36.2)9.4 (34.8)26.2 (61.2)<0.01
 Urinary creatinine (mg/dL)124.6 (66.4)124.7 (66.4)121.2 (65.7)0.36
 Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g)95.1 (351.6)88.9 (333.1)254.7 (653.7)<0.01
 Electrocardiogram, mean (SD)
  PR duration (ms)164.4 (31.5)164.3 (30.9)168.2 (44.9)0.03
  P-axis48.1 (21.6)48.0 (21.5)51.7 (23.9)<0.01
  QRS-axis12.9 (33.4)13.2 (33.1)6.9 (38.1)<0.01
  T-axis44.2 (39.1)43.3 (38.0)69.1 (55.7)<0.01
  QRS duration (ms)94.9 (16.6)94.6 (16.2)102.8 (22.2)<0.01
  Bazzett QTc calculated (ms)420.7 (20.5)420.4 (20.3)429.4 (25.1)<0.01
  R-wave amplitude in aVL622.3 (312.8)621.1 (311.8)652.5 (336.9)0.08
  S-wave amplitude in V3836.8 (477.7)830.6 (471.6)1,000.3 (595.0)<0.01
  Heart rate variability SD of NN intervals16.6 (14.0)16.7 (14.0)14.4 (14.2)0.01
  Cornell voltage1,461.6 (578.2)1,454.2 (572.1)1,657.1 (694.3)<0.01
  • GED, General Educational Development; IQR, interquartile range.

  • * Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3): aggregate score of vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, emotion, cognition, and pain.

  • Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2): aggregate score of sensation, mobility, cognition, self-care, emotion, pain, and fertility.

  • Estimated by the MDRD four-variable equation.