Table 1

Types of digital health apps used for managing diabetes

Category nameDescription/definitionExamples
1. Nutrition apps• Offer databases where users can look up carbohydrate, fat, protein, and energy content
• Support meal planning and insulin dose adjustment (14)
Carbs and Cals
CarbControl
Foodily
Healthy
Low Carb Program
2. Physical activity apps• Allow users to track their activity, count calories and set goals for exercise and weight management (15)My Fitness Pal
Nike + Running
Track 3
3. Glucose monitoring apps• Log glucose data, typically from an external device that measures glucose (e.g., BGM, CGM)
• Graphically display glucose levels to assist the patient and HCPs with management of glucose control
Dexcom Share
Diabetic
Diabetes Companion
Diabetes in Check
Glooko Mobile App
Tidepool Mobile
4. Insulin titration apps• An extension of no. 3 that also integrate bolus calculators with traditional blood glucose meters to help people with diabetes calculate their basal, prandial, and correction insulin doses (14)FDA-cleared apps: WellDoc BlueStar (16), Voluntis Insulia, Sanofi MyDose Coach, Glooko Mobile Insulin Dosing System, Amalgam iSage Rx (17), and Hygieia d-Nav Insulin Guidance System (18)
5. Insulin delivery apps• For insulin pumps and smart pens to collect and display data; includes bolus calculators, data downloaders, and firmware update apps (19)
• Such apps also provide decision support
Companion Medical InPen connects to its smartphone app via Bluetooth to keep track of insulin data (20)
Dexcom Clarity sends weekly summaries and pattern identification (21)
Medtronic’s Sugar.IQ integrates BGM and insulin dosing analysis in close to real time (22)
AID systems (also known as closed-loop control systems, artificial pancreas systems, or autonomous system for glycemic control)• Consists of a CGM system, insulin infusion pump, and a computer-controlled algorithm (for do-it-yourself AID systems a smartphone app) to allow communication between the CGM system and insulin pump on the patient (23)Medtronic’s MiniMed 670G/Guardian Sensor 3 is the first FDA-approved hybrid AID system that automates basal insulin infusion rate (still requires meal boluses) (24)
  • BGM, blood glucose monitoring.