Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the diabetes-free study population of the ESTHER cohort and their associations with loge(OxGua) and loge(8-isoprostane) levels in linear regression models

Baseline characteristicna%Mean (SD)Loge(OxGua) β (P)bLoge(8-isoprostane) β (P)b
Age (years) per 1 SD7,82861.7 (6.6)NSNS
Female4,46857.10.265 (<0.001)0.115 (<0.001)
Educationc
 Low5,64773.7NS0.046 (0.007)
 Medium1,14715.0NS−0.008 (0.691)
 High86911.3RefRef
BMI (kg/m2) per 1 SD7,82027.3 (4.2)NS0.023 (<0.001)
Smoking history
 Never3,91251.5RefRef
 Former2,41431.8NS0.033 (0.010)
 Current (0–15 g tobacco/day)5517.3NS0.211 (<0.001)
 Current (>15 g tobacco/day)7189.5NS0.342 (<0.001)
Alcohol consumptiond
 Abstainer2,15230.3RefRef
 Moderate4,42762.4NS−0.002 (0.871)
 High5187.3NS0.088 (<0.001)
Moderate or high amount of physical activitye5,13765.80.038 (0.008)0.042 (<0.001)
Daily vegetable consumption2,72535.6NSNS
Daily fruit consumption4,74762.5NS−0.038 (<0.001)
Multivitamin supplementation3,10441.6NS–0.050 (<0.001)
Antihypertensive medication3,11439.9NSNS
Lipid-lowering medication80310.3NS0.081 (<0.001)
HbA1c per 1 SD684NS0.014 (0.008)
 %5.5 (0.4)
 mmol/mol37.0 (2.1)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) per 1 SD7,828221.4 (50.9)NS0.019 (<0.001)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) per 1 SD7,82854.6 (15.5)NS0.015 (0.027)
Triglycerides (mg/dL) per 1 SD7,828127.7 (78.2)−0.016 (0.024)NS
CRP (mg/L) per 1 SD7,8284.0 (8.6)NSNS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) per 1 SD7,828139.0 (19.4)NSNS
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) per 1 SD1,39980.6 (20.6)0.017 (0.015)0.053 (<0.001)
Family history of diabetes2,71635.3NSNS
CHD81210.4NSNS
History of stroke2042.70.084 (0.049)NS
Heart failure7019.0NSNS
History of cancer5867.5NS0.062 (0.002)
  • Boldface type indicates statistical significance at P < 0.05. NS, not significant; Ref, reference.

  • a Numbers shown were drawn from the data set without imputed missing values. Therefore, numbers do not always add up to the total of n = 7,828 because of missing values.

  • b Multivariable model consisting of the statistically significant (P < 0.05) variables shown with results in the table.

  • c Definition of low, medium, and high education were ≤9, 10–11, and ≥12 years of school, respectively.

  • d Definition of moderate alcohol consumption: women >0 to <20 g ethanol/day and men >0 to <40 g ethanol/day. Definition of high alcohol consumption: women ≥20 g ethanol/day and men ≥40 g ethanol/day.

  • e Definition of moderate or high amount of physical activity: >1 h of vigorous and >1 h of light physical activity/week.