Table 2

Mean insulin doses and postprandial glycemic responses to three amounts of dietary fat added to a carbohydrate meal in 12 adults with T1D using insulin pump therapy with insulin dosed either using individualized ICR (as a dual wave) or an MPB

20 g fat (n = 12)40 g fat (n = 12)60 g fat (n = 12)Fat amount P valueDosing algorithm P valueP value for interaction
Dosing approachICRMPBICRMPBICRMPB
Mean insulin dose (units)6.5 ± 0.47.0 ± 0.8 (+6%)6.5 ± 0.46.9 ± 0.5 (+6%)6.5 ± 0.47.9 ± 0.8 (+21%)0.0930.014*0.093
Mean insulin dual-wave split (%/%)50/5074/2650/5063/3750/5049/510.019*0.0600.019*
Mean insulin dual-wave duration (min)12073120751201050.0880.019*0.088
5-h iAUC (mmol/L·min)664 ± 126326 ± 80487 ± 64315 ± 62867 ± 178361 ± 810.044*<0.001*0.281
0–120-min iAUC (mmol/L·min)305 ± 59160 ± 38210 ± 39123 ± 27229 ± 56126 ± 360.078<0.001*0.596
120–300-min iAUC (mmol/L·min)499 ± 103248 ± 64378 ± 51271 ± 51755 ± 156306 ± 670.012*0.002*0.206
Incremental mean BGL (mmol/L)1.5 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.22.1 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.30.0890.001*0.404
Incremental SD (mmol/L)2.3 ± 0.31.7 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.22.2 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.20.0720.002*0.582
Incremental peak BGL (mmol/L)5.3 ± 0.83.6 ± 0.54.2 ± 0.53.2 ± 0.55.3 ± 0.93.1 ± 0.60.216<0.001*0.529
Time to peak (min)105 ± 9113 ± 8130 ± 8132 ± 8155 ± 12147 ± 130.013*0.7950.348
Nadir (mmol/L)−1.7 ± 0.5−2.0 ± 0.4−1.4 ± 0.3−1.5 ± 0.2−0.9 ± 0.2−1.6 ± 0.40.0810.2260.662
Time to nadir (min)180 ± 41186 ± 37174 ± 40177 ± 4093 ± 36147 ± 130.3780.3320.515
CV (%)38 ± 020 ± 035 ± 016 ± 037 ± 020 ± 00.066<0.001*0.772
J-index6.4 ± 1.62.2 ± 0.73.3 ± 0.71.7 ± 0.48.3 ± 2.92.1 ± 0.60.0820.003*0.168
Incremental amplitude (mmol/L)7.0 ± 0.95.6 ± 0.65.6 ± 0.64.7 ± 0.56.3 ± 0.94.7 ± 0.60.0550.005*0.819
Incidence of hypoglycemia [n (%)]2 (17)2 (17)1 (8)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)>0.999⊥
  • Data are mean ± SE unless otherwise indicated.

  • * Statistically significant, P < 0.05.

  • Relative risk of hypoglycemia (intention-to-treat for all meals).