Table 2.1

Staging of type 1 diabetes (8,9)

Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Characteristics
  • • Autoimmunity

  • • Normoglycemia

  • • Presymptomatic

  • • Autoimmunity

  • • Dysglycemia

  • • Presymptomatic

  • • New-onset hyperglycemia

  • • Symptomatic

Diagnostic criteria
  • • Multiple autoantibodies

  • • No IGT or IFG

  • • Multiple autoantibodies

  • • Dysglycemia: IFG and/or IGT

  • • FPG 100–125 mg/dL (5.6–6.9 mmol/L)

  • • 2-h PG 140–199 mg/dL (7.8–11.0 mmol/L)

  • • A1C 5.7–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol) or ≥10% increase in A1C

  • • Clinical symptoms

  • • Diabetes by standard criteria