Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants according to diabetes status, the ARIC Study, visit 5 (2011–2013)

No diabetesPrediabetesNewly diagnosed diabetesShort-duration diabetesLong-standing diabetes§
(n = 2,100)(n = 1,737)(n = 251)(n = 851)(n = 852)
Age, years75.4 (5.0)75.7 (5.2)75.7 (5.3)75.2 (5.0)75.9 (5.2)
Male42.139.847.841.543.7
Race-center
 Minneapolis whites36.431.532.323.020.7
 Jackson blacks12.220.830.324.832.4
 Washington whites26.422.120.734.227.0
 Forsyth blacks0.72.11.61.52.9
 Forsyth whites24.223.515.116.517.0
Education attainment
 Less than high school9.113.120.718.421.4
 High school/GED55.757.360.258.554.7
 College graduate35.229.619.123.023.9
Current smoker
 No91.690.990.891.490.7
 Yes5.26.28.85.35.0
 Unknown3.22.90.43.34.2
BMI category, kg/m2
 <2537.125.717.514.714.0
 25 to <3039.641.539.437.136.9
 ≥3023.332.843.048.249.2
Family history of diabetes18.321.823.531.540.4
HbA1c, %5.4 (0.2)5.9 (0.2)6.3 (0.7)6.3 (0.9)7.0 (1.3)
Fasting blood glucose, mg/dL101.2 (11.3)107.2 (12.5)121.7 (22.3)127.1 (32.8)139.4 (44.9)
hs-CRP, mg/L1.7 (0.8–3.6)2.0 (1.0–4.4)2.7 (1.2–5.2)2.3 (1.1–4.8)2.3 (1.1–4.8)
Blood pressure, mmHg
 Systolic130.0 (18.0)130.2 (17.5)130.9 (18.1)129.4 (19.0)132.3 (19.6)
 Diastolic66.8 (10.6)67.0 (10.5)66.2 (10.6)65.7 (11.0)64.3 (10.8)
Total cholesterol, mg/dL189.8 (41.4)184.7 (40.7)176.8 (38.4)168.1 (37.7)167.2 (44.8)
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL55.7 (15.0)52.6 (13.0)48.4 (13.0)48.1 (12.3)47.5 (11.9)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m267.6 (16.7)66.5 (18.0)65.6 (17.9)64.5 (18.3)59.4 (20.3)
Stage 3+ CKD30.335.737.142.151.3
Prevalent CVD16.722.427.529.536.4
Number of medications*8.4 (5.0)8.6 (4.6)9.2 (5.0)10.2 (4.9)11.1 (5.1)
Medication use
 Hypertension62.972.982.189.591.8
 Cholesterol-lowering41.957.361.070.272.8
 Diabetes
  Oral(s) only16.336.850.4
  Insulin only0.41.712.9
  Insulin and oral0.41.413.7
  Unknown0.00.30.6
  • Continuous variables are reported as the mean (SD) or median (interquartile range). Categorical variables are reported as percentages. CKD, chronic kidney disease.

  • * 4.3% missing.

  • Diabetes diagnosed at ARIC visit 5 or within 1 year of the visit 5 examination.

  • Median diabetes duration <10 years among those with diabetes duration ≥1 year.

  • § Median diabetes duration ≥10 years among those with diabetes duration ≥1 year.