Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 3,257 post-MI patients from the Alpha Omega Cohort by quintiles of dietary and plasma LA

Quintiles of dietary LA (% energy)Quintiles of plasma LA (%)
Q1 (n = 651)Q3 (n = 651)Q5 (n = 651)Q1 (n = 652)Q3 (n = 651)Q5 (n = 651)
Median (range)3.5 (1.2–4.1)5.6 (5.1–6.2)8.8 (7.6–13.9)43.9 (28.5–46.1)50.1 (48.9–51.4)56.3 (54.3–67.6)
Age, years69.4 ± 5.768.8 ± 5.568.6 ± 5.468.2 ± 5.768.7 ± 5.469.8 ± 5.5
Men471 (72.4)536 (82.3)569 (87.4)504 (77.3)511 (78.5)553 (85.0)
BMI, kg/m227.6 ± 3.727.4 ± 3.527.1 ± 3.227.6 ± 3.827.4 ± 3.226.7 ± 3.3
Time since MI, years3.6 (1.5–6.3)3.6 (1.7–6.1)3.1 (1.4–6.3)3.1 (1.4–5.9)3.4 (1.5–6.2)4.0 (1.8–6.6)
Smoking
 Never136 (20.9)102 (15.7)86 (13.2)92 (14.1)109 (16.7)112 (17.2)
 Former414 (63.6)452 (69.4)432 (66.4)417 (64.0)440 (67.6)435 (66.9)
 Current101 (15.5)97 (14.9)133 (20.4)143 (21.9)102 (15.7)103 (15.8)
Physical activity*
 Low260 (40.2)256 (39.4)259 (40.0)257 (39.5)263 (40.4)269 (41.3)
 Middle228 (35.3)247 (38.0)262 (40.5)266 (40.9)250 (38.4)243 (37.3)
 High158 (24.5)147 (22.6)126 (19.5)127 (19.5)138 (21.2)139 (21.4)
Highest level of education
 Primary124 (19.2)133 (20.5)128 (19.8)120 (18.5)125 (19.2)137 (21.1)
 Lower secondary233 (36.0)228 (35.1)268 (41.4)223 (34.4)249 (38.2)229 (35.2)
 Higher secondary or lower tertiary209 (32.3)203 (31.2)189 (29.2)208 (32.0)202 (31.0)203 (31.2)
 Higher tertiary81 (12.5)86 (13.2)62 (9.6)98 (15.1)75 (11.5)81 (12.5)
Alcohol intake*
 No32 (4.9)18 (2.8)35 (5.4)27 (4.1)17 (2.6)36 (5.5)
 Low337 (51.8)344 (52.8)306 (47.0)262 (40.2)347 (53.3)378 (58.1)
 Moderate172 (26.4)179 (27.5)202 (31.0)170 (26.1)182 (28.0)183 (28.1)
 High110 (16.9)110 (16.9)108 (16.6)193 (29.6)105 (16.1)54 (8.3)
Medication use
 Statins560 (86.0)564 (86.6)563 (86.5)602 (92.3)587 (90.2)464 (71.3)
 Antithrombotic drugs633 (97.2)640 (98.3)641 (98.5)637 (97.7)631 (96.9)637 (97.8)
 Antihypertensive drugs581 (89.2)580 (89.1)590 (90.6)586 (89.9)576 (88.5)572 (87.9)
Serum lipids, mmol/L§
 Total cholesterol4.81 ± 0.954.73 ± 0.934.70 ± 0.984.71 ± 0.984.66 ± 0.884.83 ± 0.95
 LDL cholesterol2.67 ± 0.812.60 ± 0.762.59 ± 0.852.49 ± 0.812.54 ± 0.752.80 ± 0.84
 HDL cholesterol1.34 ± 0.361.30 ± 0.321.30 ± 0.351.32 ± 0.371.31 ± 0.351.29 ± 0.33
 Triacylglycerols1.58 (1.18–2.11)1.58 (1.18–2.21)1.59 (1.16–2.19)1.76 (1.28–2.48)1.56 (1.17–2.17)1.46 (1.11–1.97)
Plasma glucose, mmol/L§5.40 (4.96–5.98)5.44 (4.96–6.10)5.38 (4.90–6.00)5.57 (5.04–6.28)5.45 (5.00–6.00)5.33 (4.90–5.84)
Prediabetes*39 (6.1)39 (6.1)36 (5.6)53 (8.2)34 (5.3)36 (5.6)
Family history of type 2 diabetes104 (16.0)104 (16.0)104 (16.0)108 (16.6)101 (15.5)108 (16.6)
Dietary factors
 Energy, kcal/day1,750 ± 4851,856 ± 5021,938 ± 5021,775 ± 5011,858 ± 5161,938 ± 490
 Protein, % energy16.4 ± 3.015.6 ± 2.714.6 ± 2.515.8 ± 2.815.5 ± 3.015.2 ± 2.6
 Total fat, % energy31.5 ± 5.932.6 ± 4.638.6 ± 4.935.0 ± 6.235.0 ± 5.936.0 ± 6.2
 SFA, % energy12.7 ± 3.313.1 ± 2.813.5 ± 3.213.2 ± 3.212.9 ± 2.913.0 ± 3.0
cis-MUFA, % energy8.4 ± 2.09.9 ± 1.911.4 ± 1.810.1 ± 2.49.9 ± 2.19.9 ± 2.2
 PUFA, % energy5.6 ± 1.97.1 ± 0.910.8 ± 1.67.1 ± 2.27.6 ± 2.28.2 ± 2.3
 TFA, % energy0.73 ± 0.220.76 ± 0.180.78 ± 0.160.76 ± 0.200.75 ± 0.180.75 ± 0.18
 Carbohydrates, % energy52.1 ± 6.249.7 ± 5.644.6 ± 5.449.2 ± 6.449.4 ± 6.148.8 ± 6.4
 Fiber, g/day21.3 ± 7.021.7 ± 6.721.1 ± 6.220.4 ± 6.721.6 ± 6.623.2 ± 6.9
 Cholesterol, mg/day181 ± 68189 ± 70181 ± 68187 ± 72185 ± 66183 ± 68
 Healthy nutrient and food score22.1 ± 6.222.7 ± 6.122.6 ± 6.121.6 ± 6.322.6 ± 5.923.6 ± 5.8
Plasma FA composition
 SFA, % total FA13.2 ± 1.213.1 ± 1.012.9 ± 1.014.1 ± 1.113.1 ± 0.712.1 ± 0.7
 MUFA, % total FA22.9 ± 3.222.4 ± 3.121.6 ± 3.126.3 ± 3.022.2 ± 1.719.1 ± 1.8
 PUFA, % total FA62.4 ± 4.063.1 ± 3.964.1 ± 3.758.0 ± 3.363.4 ± 1.867.6 ± 2.1
 n-3 PUFA, % total FA2.4 (2.0–3.2)2.4 (2.0–3.0)2.3 (1.9–2.8)2.8 (2.2–3.6)2.4 (2.0–3.0)2.0 (1.6–2.4)
 n-6 PUFA, % total FA59.5 ± 4.360.3 ± 4.261.5 ± 4.154.7 ± 3.460.6 ± 1.965.4 ± 2.2
 Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), % total FA8.2 ± 2.08.3 ± 2.18.4 ± 2.19.4 ± 2.28.6 ± 1.86.9 ± 1.5
 Palmitic acid (16:0), % total FA11.4 ± 0.811.3 ± 0.811.2 ± 0.812.1 ± 0.811.3 ± 0.610.5 ± 0.6
 Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), % total FA2.9 ± 1.22.6 ± 1.12.4 ± 1.03.9 ± 1.42.5 ± 0.71.9 ± 0.6
 Oleic acid (18:1n-9), % total FA18.0 ± 2.217.8 ± 2.217.3 ± 2.220.3 ± 2.017.7 ± 1.415.6 ± 1.5
 Liver fat proxy (16:0/18:2n-6)0.23 ± 0.040.23 ± 0.040.22 ± 0.030.28 ± 0.030.22 ± 0.010.18 ± 0.01
 Estimated D6D activity (18:3n-6/18:2n-6)0.021 ± 0.0080.020 ± 0.0080.020 ± 0.0080.029 ± 0.0090.020 ± 0.0060.013 ± 0.004
  • Values are shown as mean ± SD, median (IQR), or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. % energy, percentage of total energy intake, excluding energy from alcohol.

  • * Classification described in text (research design and methods).

  • To convert to mg/dL, divide by 0.02586 for total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and by 0.01129 for triacylglycerols.

  • Fasting <4 h (n = 1,676), fasting 4 to <8 h (n = 314), fasting 8 to <12 h (n = 100), fasting ≥12 h (n = 1,035), fasting status unknown (n = 132).

  • § Missing values for 61 patients for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triacylglycerols, 253 patients for LDL cholesterol, 31 patients for plasma glucose, and 1 patient for healthy nutrient and food score.