Table 4

Subhazard ratios (95% CI) for cardiovascular mortality associated with diabetes status and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline

Model 1Model 2Model 3
Diabetes status
 No diabetes1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Prediabetes1.06 (0.75, 1.51)1.05 (0.74, 1.50)1.00 (0.70, 1.43)
 Newly diagnosed diabetes1.63 (0.91, 2.91)1.54 (0.85, 2.80)1.35 (0.74, 2.49)
 Short-duration diabetes1.32 (0.88, 1.99)1.30 (0.85, 1.97)1.09 (0.72, 1.66)
 Long-standing diabetes2.39 (1.68, 3.39)2.31 (1.60, 3.33)1.72 (1.18, 2.51)
Age, per 5 years1.76 (1.56, 1.99)1.73 (1.53, 1.95)1.49 (1.30, 1.70)
Male1.54 (1.20, 1.97)1.54 (1.20, 1.98)1.39 (1.05, 1.85)
Race-center
 Minneapolis whites1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Jackson blacks1.86 (1.31, 2.63)1.62 (1.12, 2.32)1.51 (1.03, 2.20)
 Washington whites1.10 (0.87, 1.54)1.00 (0.70, 1.43)0.99 (0.70, 1.42)
 Forsyth blacks0.28 (0.04, 2.03)0.26 (0.04, 1.54)0.26 (0.03, 1.93)
 Forsyth whites0.84 (0.57, 1.24)0.82 (0.56, 1.22)0.74 (0.49, 1.11)
Family history of diabetes1.00 (0.76, 1.33)1.02 (0.76, 1.36)
Education attainment
 Less than high school1.56 (1.06, 2.28)1.29 (0.87, 1.90)
 High school/GED1.06 (0.78, 1.46)1.05 (0.76, 1.46)
 College graduate1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
Current smoking1.16 (0.87, 1.54)
Total cholesterol, per 100 mg/dL1.16 (0.44, 3.04)
HDL cholesterol, per 100 mg/dL0.83 (0.28, 2.44)
Cholesterol-lowering medication use0.77 (0.56, 1.04)
Systolic blood pressure, per 10 mmHg1.01 (0.94, 1.08)
Hypertension medication use0.81 (0.55, 1.19)
eGFR, per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2
 <60 mL/min/1.73 m20.76 (0.68, 0.86)
 >60 mL/min/1.73 m20.91 (0.76, 1.07)
hs-CRP, log2 mg/L1.12 (1.04 1.21)
Prevalent CVD2.94 (2.23, 3.87)
  • Model 1: age, sex, and race-center. Model 2: model 1 plus education attainment and family history of diabetes. Model 3: model 2 plus current smoking, systolic blood pressure, hypertension medication use, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering medication use, log-transformed hs-CRP, eGFR with spline knot at 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and prevalent CVD.