Table 1

Summary of weight change and fasting metabolic parameters for responder, nonresponder, diabetic control, and NDC groups at baseline and 5, 12, and 24 months

Baseline5 months12 months24 months
Participants, n
 Responders39392820
 Nonresponders18181612
 Control26232019
 NDC25
Weight (kg)
 Responders100.4 ± 16.684.0 ± 13.4; P < 0.000185.5 ± 16.2; P < 0.000188.8 ± 17.7; P = 0.016
 Nonresponders102.1 ± 18.888.7 ± 18.8; P = 0.00892.5 ± 18.3; P = 0.05090.3 ± 14.6; P = 0.028
 Control96.7 ± 11.895.8 ± 12.895.2 ± 14.495.0 ± 13.9
 NDC86.6 ± 14.9
Weight loss (%)
 Responders16.0 ± 6.1; P < 0.000114.3 ± 6.9; P < 0.000110.5 ± 6.1; P = 0.016
 Nonresponders13.2 ± 6.1; P = 0.0089.4 ± 5.2; P = 0.0508.3 ± 4.5; P = 0.028
 Control1.1 ± 3.10.8 ± 4.41.7 ± 5.5
 NDC
HbA1c (%)
 Responders7.4 ± 1.05.9 ± 0.4; P < 0.00015.8 ± 0.4; P < 0.00016.0 ± 0.3; P < 0.0001
 Nonresponders7.9 ± 0.8; P = 0.041*8.0 ± 1.7; P < 0.0001*7.6 ± 0.7; P < 0.0001*8.1 ± 1.3; P < 0.0001*
 Control7.3 ± 1.07.8 ± 1.58.5 ± 2.27.2 ± 1.0
 NDC5.4 ± 0.3
FPG (mmol/L)
 Responders8.3 ± 2.45.7 ± 0.8; P < 0.00015.6 ± 0.6; P < 0.00015.6 ± 0.7; P < 0.0001
 Nonresponders9.3 ± 2.88.8 ± 2.6; P < 0.0001*8.5 ± 1.8; P < 0.0001*9.3 ± 4.0; P < 0.0001*
 Control8.3 ± 2.08.4 ± 2.38.5 ± 2.28.0 ± 2.0
 NDC5.1 ± 0.4
FPI (pmol/L)
 Responders86.4 (55.5–145.5)32.6 (19.6–53.3); P < 0.000128.9 (17.6–65.7); P < 0.000143.5 (18.4–61.6); P < 0.0001
 Nonresponders71.4 (51.5–100.6)33.8 (20.7–43.3); P < 0.000132.7 (23.7–61.7); P = 0.00634.4 (16.5–49.5); P = 0.001
 Control70.1 (44.7–122.5)58.4 (36.2–83.0)65.5 (39.9–76.9)44.7 (31.3–64.5); P = 0.050
 NDC16.4 (10.0–37.2)
Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L)
 Responders0.99 ± 0.320.59 ± 0.23; P < 0.00010.59 ± 0.21; P < 0.00010.65 ± 0.25; P < 0.0001
 Nonresponders0.84 ± 0.280.61 ± 0.20; P = 0.0030.65 ± 0.24; P = 0.0420.59 ± 0.23; P = 0.022
 Control0.92 ± 0.410.87 ± 0.340.87 ± 0.410.78 ± 0.22
 NDC0.53 ± 0.32
Total fasting TG (mmol/L)
 Responders1.71 (1.15–2.29)1.05 (0.73–1.53); P < 0.00011.09 (0.75–1.62); P < 0.00011.00 (0.79–1.46); P < 0.0001
 Nonresponders1.57 (1.25–1.99)1.15 (0.90–1.40); P = 0.0091.24 (0.92–1.47); P = 0.0481.29 (0.95–1.53)
 Control1.06 (0.81–1.58)1.20 (1.00–1.50)1.21 (1.00–1.91)1.05 (0.89–1.63)
 NDC1.10 (0.80–1.50)
  • Data are mean ± SD and median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated. Data for the NDC group are shown in the 5 months column because these participants were recruited to have weight equivalent to the intervention group after weight loss. Comparisons are shown for baseline to 5 months, baseline to 12 months, and baseline to 24 months. The percentage of weight loss is shown for each group at that particular time point vs. the same number of participants at the baseline.

  • * Responders vs. nonresponders at each time point.