Table 2

Results from the GLM regression with γ distribution and identity link on total costs

VariablesModel 1Model 2
Diabetes duration categories (reference: 0–2 years)
 2–5 years162.6*** (44.74)127.9*** (41.71)
 5–10 years520.2*** (48.19)347.9*** (43.78)
 >10 years1,039*** (66.19)738.7*** (60.68)
HbA1c categories (reference: HbA1c <7%)
 7% ≥ HbA1c < 8%147.8*** (42.21)127.5*** (39.11)
 8% ≥ HbA1c < 10%527.0*** (58.04)395.1*** (52.64)
 HbA1c ≥10%582.3*** (95.64)428.3*** (86.16)
Complications (reference: no complications)
 Macrovascular complications1,516*** (97.51)
 Microvascular complications844.1*** (69.74)
 Both types2,091*** (83.61)
Observations (n)a90,87490,874
AIC17.94717.892
BIC−1,001,518−1,006,790
Log-likelihood−866,376.45−863,723.18
  • Cost in 2011 €, with SEs given in parentheses. Model 1 adjusted for age (in categories), sex, BMI (in categories), hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and smoking habits. Model 2 adds to model 1 whether the individual has any micro- or macrovascular complications or both. Reference categories: diabetes duration of <2 years, HbA1c <7% (models 1 and 2), and no vascular complications (model 2).

  • AIC, Akaike information criterion; BIC, Bayesian information criterion.

  • *** P < 0.01.

  • a Only individuals with complete data for all lifestyle factors (and any other variable included in the regressions) were included in the analyses (i.e., 90,874 patients in both models 1 and 2 out of 100,391 patients from the whole patient cohort).