Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries initiating glargine, detemir, or NPH from 2006 to 2015 after IPTW

Insulin glargine and NPH cohortInsulin glargine and insulin detemir cohort
Insulin glargineNPHSMDInsulin glargineInsulin detemirSMD
n%n%n%n%
Base population203,159205,672203,159202,436
Characteristics
 Age (years)
  65–74104,86252109,893530.04104,86252104,810520.00
  75–8473,1593671,570350.0373,1593672,797360.00
  >8525,1381224,210120.0225,1381224,828120.00
 Race
  White153,25875157,618770.03153,25875152,926760.00
  Black26,9651326,200130.0226,9651326,750130.00
  Other22,9361121,854110.0222,9361122,760110.00
 Low income status
  Received LIS88,9654486,528420.0388,9654488,341440.00
  No LIS114,19456119,145580.03114,19456114,095560.00
 Zip code–level income
  <$30,00040,8832040,685200.0140,8832040,535200.00
  $30,000 to $60,000132,17965134,631650.01132,17965132,103650.00
  >$60,00023,1251123,366110.0023,1251122,851110.00
  Unknown6,97236,99030.006,97236,94630.00
 Metropolitan statistical area
  Nonrural150,54674152,153740.00150,54674149,473740.01
  Rural52,6132653,519260.0052,6132652,963260.01
Medication use
 ACE inhibitors/ARBs150,73774151,630740.01150,73774150,133740.00
 Antiplatelets35,7931836,943180.0135,7931835,525180.00
 β-Blockers108,07353110,657540.01108,07353107,485530.00
 Calcium channel blockers81,7754083,265400.0081,7754081,276400.00
 Digoxin15,565816,44980.0115,565815,41080.00
 Diuretics, loop74,9313777,695380.0274,9313774,331370.00
 Diuretics, potassium20,6111021,510100.0120,6111020,623100.00
 Diuretics, thiazides75,1353775,393370.0175,1353774,909370.00
 Fibrates16,710817,18980.0016,710816,80580.00
 SSRI antidepressants41,9962143,597210.0141,9962141,777210.00
 Diabetes drugs183,42290186,421910.01183,42290182,752900.00
  Metformin109,84854110,897540.00109,84854109,647540.00
  Sulfonylureas109,42854112,946550.02109,42854109,240540.00
  Thiazolidinediones35,9591836,263180.0035,9591835,532180.00
  Nonstudy insulins53,2882656,493270.0353,2882653,042260.00
  Other antidiabetes drugs53,5042655,364270.0153,5042653,609260.00
 Statins135,85467137,108670.00135,85467135,475670.00
 Hormone replacement therapy7,75148,29340.017,75147,71140.00
Medical conditions
 Heart failure54,1822757,395280.0354,1822753,618260.00
 Hypertension186,64492189,144920.00186,64492186,116920.00
 COPD37,9741940,098190.0237,9741937,791190.00
 aDCSI score (categorical)
  042,2872141,066200.0242,2872142,336210.00
  1–269,2983469,223340.0169,2983468,897340.00
  3–452,4822653,803260.0152,4822652,378260.00
  ≥539,0921941,580200.0239,0921938,824190.00
 Charlson Comorbidity Index (categorical)
  0129,40364124,790610.06129,40364129,380640.00
  1–232,6691635,355170.0332,6691632,290160.00
  3–424,7381227,462130.0424,7381224,511120.00
  ≥516,349818,06690.0316,349816,25580.00
 Obesity35,9631837,382180.0135,9631836,376180.01
 Chronic kidney failure52,6112655,764270.0352,6112652,402260.00
 Acute kidney failure26,1751329,676140.0426,1751326,016130.00
Alcohol abuse1,39811,56810.011,39811,40010.00
Smoking19,044920,837100.0319,044919,15590.00
Health care utilization
 Hospitalizations
  0128,24863123,559600.06128,24863128,275630.00
  143,3852146,163220.0343,3852142,946210.00
  217,868919,955100.0317,868917,77490.00
  ≥313,658715,99580.0413,658713,44170.00
 ER visits
  0141,15969139,990680.03141,15969140,860700.00
  140,5732042,643210.0240,5732040,301200.00
  212,898613,78770.0112,898612,79860.00
  ≥38,52949,25140.018,52948,47740.00
 Physician visits
  08,09748,24240.008,09747,84340.01
  1–427,8451427,375130.0127,8451427,583140.00
  5–1052,4752652,350250.0152,4752652,155260.00
  11–2063,6183164,725310.0063,6183163,672310.00
  21–3029,3511430,678150.0129,3511429,393150.00
  ≥3121,7731122,302110.0021,7731121,790110.00
 Mammogram screening45,5212246,765230.0145,5212245,602230.00
 Physician specialty
  Endocrinology19,6281023,599110.0619,6281019,847100.00
  Primary care108,00253105,783510.03108,00253108,426540.01
  Other75,5293776,291370.0075,5293774,163370.01
  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ER, emergency room; LIS, low income subsidy; SMD, standardized mean difference; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.