Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics, including medical history, medications, and socioeconomic variables

Group, n (%) or mean (SD)
CharacteristicGBP (n = 5,321)Control (n = 5,321)Standardized difference
Male sex2,098 (39.43)1,926 (36.20)0.0472
Age (years)49.0 (9.5)47.1 (11.5)0.1220
BMI (kg/m2)42.0 (5.7)40.9 (7.3)0.1167
HbA1c (mmol/mol)59.9 (16.9)58.5 (16.9)0.0589
Creatinine (mmol/L)68.1 (27.6)68.0 (25.4)0.0026
eGFR (MDRD) (mL/min/1.73 m2)97.2 (25.0)98.3 (27.5)0.0282
eGFR (CKD-EPI) (mL/min/1.73 m2)99.4 (17.6)100.1 (20.1)0.0250
LDL (mmol/L)2.8 (0.9)2.8 (0.9)0.0463
HDL (mmol/L)1.1 (0.3)1.1 (0.3)0.0629
Triglycerides (mmol/L)2.3 (1.5)2.2 (1.5)0.0347
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.9 (1.1)4.9 (1.1)0.0297
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)132.8 (14.5)132.5 (15.6)0.0135
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.3 (9.6)80.0 (9.8)0.0209
Coronary heart disease395 (7.42)313 (5.88)0.0437
CVD475 (8.93)408 (7.67)0.0323
Stroke109 (2.05)103 (1.94)0.0057
Congestive heart failure142 (2.67)166 (3.12)0.0190
Microalbuminuria481 (19.30)697 (19.50)0.0035
Macroalbuminuria199 (7.50)298 (7.89)0.0103
Acute kidney failure31 (0.58)50 (0.94)0.0291
CKD21 (0.39)37 (0.70)0.0289
Diabetic nephropathy37 (0.70)43 (0.81)0.0092
Severe renal disease56 (1.05)83 (1.56)0.0316
Liver disease16 (0.30)26 (0.49)0.0212
Cancer111 (2.09)158 (2.97)0.0398
Psychiatric disorders520 (9.77)529 (9.94)0.0040
Alcohol abuse94 (1.77)122 (2.29)0.0264
Medication
 Blood pressure medication2,504 (66.23)3,034 (60.41)0.0854
 Lipid-lowering drugs2,688 (50.52)2,414 (45.37)0.0730
 Insulin1,967 (36.97)1,886 (35.44)0.0224
 Metformin3,947 (74.18)3,769 (70.83)0.0530
 Sulfonylureas627 (11.78)541 (10.17)0.0366
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors41 (0.77)38 (0.71)0.0046
 Meglitinides138 (2.59)132 (2.48)0.0051
 Glitazones190 (3.57)150 (2.82)0.0302
 DPP-4 inhibitors257 (4.83)239 (4.49)0.0113
 GLP-1 analogs310 (5.83)245 (4.60)0.0389
 SGLT2 inhibitors1 (0.02)1 (0.02)0.0000
 NSAIDs1,852 (34.81)1,476 (27.74)0.1081
 Opiates1,658 (31.16)1,026 (19.28)0.1952
Physical activity
 Never551 (20.95)836 (20.78)0.0030
 <1 time/week477 (18.14)627 (15.59)0.0482
 1–2 times/week637 (24.22)992 (24.66)0.0072
 3–5 times/week515 (19.58)805 (20.01)0.0076
 5–7 times/week450 (17.11)763 (18.97)0.0341
Smoking status576 (15.89)942 (19.72)0.0708
Income/year (SEK), median (Q1, Q3)199,638 (139,136, 261,558)168,380 (121,840, 239,368)0.1564
Marital status
 Married2,518 (47.35)2,227 (41.87)0.0781
 Separated1,092 (20.53)881 (16.56)0.0723
 Widowed106 (1.99)147 (2.76)0.0358
 Single1,602 (30.12)2,064 (38.80)0.1297
Education
 Elementary school1,069 (20.18)1,431 (27.48)0.1216
 College level3,192 (60.25)2,847 (54.67)0.0800
 Upper secondary school1,037 (19.57)930 (17.86)0.0311
Country
 Sweden4,261 (80.08)4,027 (75.68)0.0750
 Europe except Sweden514 (9.66)602 (11.31)0.0382
 Rest of world546 (10.26)692 (13.01)0.0606
  • DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase 4; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; Q, quartile; SEK, Swedish krona; SGLT2, sodium–glucose cotransporter 2.