Table 2

Baseline characteristics and glycemic outcomes of the inpatients cohorts

PredictorsInpatients with diabetes (N = 17,658)
Inpatient hospital admissions (n = 32,758)
Sex, N (%)
 Female8,381 (47)
 Male9,277 (53)
Age, mean (SD)66 (18)
Ethnicity, N (%)
 White British12,511 (70.8)
 African116 (0.7)
 Pakistani331 (1.9)
 Chinese53 (0.3)
 Indian254 (1.4)
 Not stated2,869 (16.2)
 Other1,524 (8.6)
Type of diabetes, N (%)
 Insulin-dependent diabetes1,696 (9.6)
 Non–insulin-dependent diabetes14,006 (79.3)
 Other forms1,956 (11.1)
Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD)132.5 (18.2)
eGFR, mean (SD)29.8 (6.4)
Medication use
 Sulfonylurea, n (%)6,435 (19.6)
 DPP-4, n (%)1,415 (4.3)
 GLP-1, n (%)349 (1.1)
 Metformin, n (%)10,756 (32.8)
 Insulin, n (%)
  Intravenous insulin4,678 (14.3)
  Rapid-acting analog3,954 (12.1)
  Mixed-acting analog1,553 (4.7)
  Long-acting analog5,118 (15.6)
  Short-acting human3,561 (10.9)
  Mixed-acting human1,388 (4.2)
  Intermediate-acting human2,394 (7.3)
 Procedures, n (%)22,931 (70.0)
Glycemic outcomes
 Hypoglycemia, n (%)
  Biochemical hypoglycemia7,030 (21.5)
  Clinically significant hypoglycemia3,154 (9.6)
 BG level, mean (SD)10.1 (4.7)
  • N (%), number of patients and percentage over the total number of patients; n (%), number of admissions and percentage over the total number of admissions. DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase 4; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1. Insulin (rapid-acting analog): “Insulin aspart, ” “Insulin lispro, ” “Insulin glulisine, ” “Insulin faster acting aspart. ” Insulin (mixed analog): “Insulin aspart biphasic (Novomix 30), ” “Insulin lispro biphasic (Humalog Mix 25 and Humalog Mix 50). ” Insulin (long-acting analog): “Insulin glargine, ” “Insulin detemir, ” “Insulin degludec. ” Insulin (short-acting human): “Insulin Actrapid, ” “Insulin Humulin S. ” Insulin (mixed human): “Insulin Humulin M3. ” Insulin (intermediate-acting human): “Insulin Insulatard, ” “Insulin Humulin I. ”