Table 1

Unadjusted uninsured rates and socioeconomic characteristics of the county population living at or below 138% of the federal poverty line, by Medicaid expansion and Diabetes Belt status, 2012–2016

VariablesMedicaid expansion statesNonexpansion states
TotalDiabetes BeltNon-BeltTotalDiabetes BeltNon-Belt
Counties, n1,1801431,0371,9495001,449
Total population in 2012, n21,286,925758,21320,528,71220,122,3673,917,96816,204,399
Uninsured rates (%) by year, mean (SD)
 201234.6 (8.5)39.3 (4.2)33.9 (8.7)42.0 (8.1)40.4 (5.0)42.5 (8.9)
 201333.6 (8.3)38.5 (4.1)32.9 (8.5)41.2 (8.2)39.9 (5.3)41.7 (8.9)
 201423.0 (5.8)21.4 (3.1)23.2 (6.1)36.4 (7.8)35.8 (4.8)36.6 (8.6)
 201516.9 (5.3)15.0 (3.0)17.2 (5.5)31.9 (8.7)31.2 (4.9)32.1 (9.6)
 201614.8 (4.6)13.1 (2.3)15.1 (4.8)29.4 (8.8)28.7 (5.2)29.7 (9.7)
Demographic factors (%), mean (SD)
 Age 50–64 years28.3 (5.5)31.2 (3.4)27.9 (5.7)28.5 (5.5)30.1 (4.4)28.0 (5.8)
 Female sex55.1 (2.1)55.5 (2.1)55.1 (2.1)55.7 (2.5)57.0 (2.2)55.3 (2.5)
DCI, n (%)
 Prosperous272 (23.1)1 (0.7)271 (26.1)353 (18.1)16 (3.2)337 (23.3)
 Comfortable264 (22.4)3 (2.1)261 (25.2)362 (18.6)31 (6.2)331 (22.8)
 Mid-tier258 (21.9)23 (16.1)235 (22.7)368 (18.9)58 (11.6)310 (21.4)
 At risk209 (17.7)34 (23.8)175 (16.9)417 (21.4)124 (24.8)293 (20.2)
 Distressed177 (15.0)82 (57.3)95 (9.2)449 (23.0)271 (54.2)178 (12.3)
Urban-rural classification of counties, n (%)
 Rural210 (17.8)37 (25.9)173 (16.7)424 (21.8)92 (18.4)332 (22.9)
 Micropolitan519 (44.0)75 (52.5)444 (42.8)812 (41.7)232 (46.4)580 (40.0)
 Metropolitan451 (38.2)31 (21.7)420 (40.5)713 (36.6)176 (35.2)537 (37.1)