Table 1

Potential predictors and how they are represented in the EPR and in the prediction models

CategoryPredictorData in EPRData in modelsUnitCompleteness (%)Data sets
DemographicsAgeYear of birthComputed based on the year of admissionyears100IH
SexMale/femaleBinary variable (1/0)NA100IH
EthnicityEthnicity (categorical value)Categorical variable (white British, African, etc.)NA100IH
WeightWeight measured at time of admissionWeight valuekg71IH
HeightHeight measured at time of admissionHeight valuecm59IH
Type of diabetesType of diabetes (categorical value)Categorical variable (T1D/T2D/other)NA100IH
Vital signsDiastolic blood pressureMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionmmHg73IH
Systolic blood pressureMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionmmHg73IH
Heart rateMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admission/min71IH
Oxygen saturationMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admission%73IH
TemperatureMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionCelsius72IH
Laboratory testsAlbuminMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissiong/L81IH
AmylaseMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionIU/L15IH
C-peptideMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionpmol/L17IH
CortisolMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionnmol/L26IH
CreatinineMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionμmol/L80IH
C-reactive proteinMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionmg/L78IH
eGFRMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionmL/min/1.73 m280IH
HemoglobinMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissiong/L80IH
HbA1cMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admission%42IH
PotassiumMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionmmol/L80IH
SodiumMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admissionmmol/L80IH
White cellsMultiple measurementsAverage value throughout the admission× 109/L79IH
MedicationsSulfonylureaDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
DPP-4Drug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
GLP-1Drug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
MetforminDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
MorphineDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
PioglitazoneDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
BisoprololDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
AmitriptylineDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
PregabalinDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
DexamethasoneDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
PrednisoloneDrug dose and timeBinary variable (1 for on drug and 0 for not)NA100IH
Intravenous insulinMultiple rates of insulin infusionBinary variable (1 for on i.v. insulin and 0 for not)NA100IH+
Insulin (rapid-acting analog)Multiple doses of different amountAverage total daily insulin doseunit100IH+
Insulin (mixed analog)Multiple doses of different amountAverage total daily insulin doseunit100IH+
Insulin (long-acting analog)Multiple doses of different amountAverage total daily insulin doseunit100IH+
Insulin (short-acting human)Multiple doses of different amountAverage total daily insulin doseunit100IH+
Insulin (mixed human)Multiple doses of different amountAverage total daily insulin doseunit100IH+
Insulin (intermediate-acting human)Multiple doses of different amountAverage total daily insulin doseunit100IH+
ProceduresProcedure indicationProcedure name and timeBinary variable (1 for had at least one procedure during the admission and 0 for not)NA100IH+
Previous hypoglycemiaPrevious biochemical hypoglycemiaBlood glucose measurementsBinary variable (1 for had at least one blood glucose <4 mmol/L)NA63PH
Previous clinically significant hypoglycemiaBlood glucose measurementsBinary variable (1 for had at least one blood glucose <3 mmol/L)NA63PH
  • DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase 4; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1; NA, not applicable; T1D, type 1 diabetes; T2D, type 2 diabetes.

  • Insulin (rapid-acting analog): “Insulin aspart,” “Insulin lispro,” “Insulin glulisine,” “Insulin faster acting aspart.”

  • Insulin (mixed analog): “Insulin aspart biphasic (Novomix 30),” “Insulin lispro biphasic (Humalog Mix 25 and Humalog Mix 50).”

  • Insulin (long-acting analog): “Insulin glargine,” “Insulin detemir,” “Insulin degludec.”

  • Insulin (short-acting human): “Insulin Actrapid,” “Insulin Humulin S.”

  • Insulin (mixed human): “Insulin Humulin M3.”

  • Insulin (intermediate-acting human): “Insulin Insulatard,” “Insulin Humulin I.”