Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19

Patients with normoglycemiaPatients with hyperglycemiaP valueHyperglycemia without insulin infusionHyperglycemia with insulin infusionP value
Patients34 (57.6)25 (42.4)10 (40)15 (60)
Age (years)66.6 ± 11.568.5 ± 5.80.46868.9 ± 6.068.2 ± 5.90.776
Sex (M/F), n28/620/58/212/3
BMI (kg/m2)27.9 ± 1.627.5 ± 1.30.25127.3 ± 1.427.6 ± 1.30.599
Systolic BP (mmHg)122.4 ± 8.5116.2 ± 5.40.002115.9 ± 5.8116.3 ± 5.30.849
Diastolic BP (mmHg)79.3 ± 6.679.9 ± 7.10.76981.7 ± 5.678.7 ± 7.80.301
Heart rate (bpm)86.4 ± 6.088.4 ± 11.60.41393.1 ± 11.685.2 ± 10.90.097
Risk factors
 Diabetes8 (23.5)18 (72)0.0017 (70)11 (73.3)0.601
 Heart disease7 (20.6)5 (20)0.1292 (20)3 (20)0.488
 Hypertension26 (76.5)18 (72)0.4628 (80)10 (66.7)0.399
 Hyperlipemia9 (26.5)6 (24.4)0.5382 (20)4 (26.7)0.545
 Cigarette smoking6 (17.6)5 (20)0.5392 (20)3 (20)0.687
Active treatments
 β-Blockers12 (35.3)17 (68)0.0136 (60)11 (73.3)0.393
 ACE inhibitors13 (38.2)10 (40)0.5516 (60)4 (26.7)0.106
 ARBs13 (38.2)15 (60)0.0826 (60)9 (60)0.663
 Calcium inhibitors6 (17.6)6 (24)0.3903 (30)3 (20)0.455
 Statins19 (55.9)9 (36)0.1066 (60)3 (20)0.053
 Thiazide diuretics7 (20.6)5 (20)0.6101 (10)4 (26.7)0.313
 Insulin4 (11.8)3 (12)0.2871 (10)2 (20)0.468
 Oral antidiabetic drugs7 (20.6)17 (68)0.0527 (70)10 (66.7)0.118
 Aspirin29 (85.3)23 (92)0.3599 (90)14 (93.3)0.650
 Low-molecular-weight heparin6 (17.6)6 (24)0.3902 (20)4 (26.7)0.545
Laboratory analyses
 Plasma glucose (mmol/L)6.3 ± 0.9911.04 ± 2.06<0.00111.06 ± 1.9812.32 ± 1.480.792
 Cholesterol (mg/dL)209.2 ± 16.9203.2 ± 22.10.244200.6 ± 15.6205.0 ± 25.90.637
 LDL-C (mg/dL)136.1 ± 16.7129.5 ± 20.90.185126.5 ± 15.1131.5 ± 24.40.562
 HDL-C (mg/dL)36.1 ± 2.937.1 ± 4.10.25739.6 ± 4.437.1 ± 4.00.892
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)187.1 ± 23.9190.9 ± 28.10.577186.2 ± 21.1194.1 ± 32.20.501
 Creatinine (mg/dL)1.0 ± 0.180.9 ± 0.150.0830.9 ± 0.140.9 ± 0.150.555
COVID-19 treatments
 Antiviral drugs33 (97.1)24 (96)0.43610 (100)14 (93.3)0.880
 Hydroxychloroquine34 (100)25 (100)10 (100)15 (100)
 Antibiotics33 (97.1)25 (100)0.98510 (100)15 (100)
 Oxygen therapy8 (23.5)6 (24)0.7442 (20)3 (20)0.455
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise specified. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; HDL-C, HDL cholesterol; LDL-C, LDL cholesterol.