Table 1

Percentage of U.S. adults aged 65 years and older (95% CI) with no prior diagnosis who would be classified as having diabetes by different diagnostic approaches, NHANES 2005–2016

Endocrine Society approach*Standard approachEndocrine Society but not standard approach
Percentage95% CIP value§Percentage95% CIP value§Percentage95% CIP value§
Overall15.713.9–17.77.36.0–8.78.57.1–10.0
Age (years)
 65–7412.810.8–15.10.006.85.3–8.60.276.04.6–7.80.00
 ≥7520.217.3–23.58.06.4–10.012.29.9–15.0
Sex
 Male16.313.6–19.40.628.56.8–10.50.127.85.8–10.30.38
 Female15.313.0–18.06.34.7–8.59.07.4–10.8
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white15.613.4–18.00.217.15.7–8.80.348.56.8–10.50.38
 Mexican-American21.816.0–28.89.55.5–15.812.38.3–17.9
 Non-Hispanic black16.812.6–22.09.06.1–13.27.74.7–12.5
Educational level
 Beyond high school12.510.2–15.20.006.04.4–8.10.046.55.0–8.30.01
 High school or lower19.516.6–22.78.87.0–10.910.78.4–13.5
Poverty/income ratio <130%
 No14.512.3–16.90.006.75.2–8.50.047.86.2–9.70.01
 Yes23.519.0–28.510.57.5–14.413.09.3–17.9
Family history of diabetes
 No15.012.9–17.40.016.55.0–8.40.048.56.9–10.30.36
 Yes19.916.4–23.99.97.2–13.69.97.3–13.5
Prior history of prediabetes
 No12.811.0–14.80.005.34.2–6.60.007.56.1–9.20.05
 Yes31.223.4–40.218.812.7–26.912.47.7–19.3
Smoking
 Never smoker15.012.7–17.70.576.75.0–8.80.618.36.5–10.60.77
 Former smoker16.013.1–19.57.86.0–10.18.36.2–10.9
 Current smoker18.213.4–24.38.25.0–12.910.06.3–15.6
Obese
 No12.310.3–14.60.004.53.6–5.60.007.86.2–9.90.22
 Yes23.319.4–27.813.410.3–17.210.07.5–13.1
Abdominal obesity
 No9.67.6–12.20.003.72.7–5.20.005.94.3–8.10.00
 Yes18.516.1–21.18.56.8–10.79.98.1–12.0
Hypertension
 No9.27.1–11.90.004.53.0–6.60.004.73.3–6.80.00
 Yes19.216.9–21.78.57.1–10.310.78.9–12.7
High cholesterol
 No14.512.0–17.30.137.55.9–9.50.646.95.4–8.90.02
 Yes17.114.8–19.67.05.5–8.910.18.0–12.5
History of CVD
 No14.712.7–16.80.036.85.5–8.30.177.96.5–9.60.11
 Yes19.115.5–23.38.86.3–12.310.27.7–13.5
Microalbuminuria
 No14.011.9–16.30.006.65.2–8.30.057.45.9–9.20.00
 Yes24.119.7–29.010.37.4–14.113.810.5–17.9
  • CVD, cardiovascular disease.

  • * Participants meeting diabetes by the Endocrine Society approach had HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), FPG ≥126 mg/dL, or 2-h PG ≥200 mg/dL with prediabetic HbA1c or FPG.

  • Participants meeting diabetes by the standard approach had HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or FPG ≥126 mg/dL.

  • Participants meeting diabetes by only the Endocrine Society approach had 2-h PG ≥200 mg/dL with prediabetic HbA1c or FPG.

  • § P values are from χ2 tests.