Table 1

Aggregated data (across studies or centers) on COVID-19 severity in PWD*

Study designCountryNumber of studiesNumber of participantsOutcome measureRisk estimate
Systematic review and meta-analysis (2)Multiple83,076Risk of diabetes in severe patients compared with nonsevere patientsOR 2.07, 95% CI 0.89–4.82
Systematic review and meta-analysis (63)**Multiple92,103Risk of diabetes in severe patients compared with nonsevere patientsOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.91–3.7
Systematic review and meta-analysis (4)Multiple61,527Risk of diabetes in severe/ICU patients compared with nonsevere (non-ICU) patientsRR 2.21, 95% CI 0.88–5.57
Meta-analysis (64)China122,018Diabetes rate ratio among patients with more severe versus those with less severe infectionRate ratio 2.26, 95% CI 1.47–3.49
Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report (65)Chinan/a72,314Case fatality rate7.3% in PWD (compared with 2.3% overall)
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report (5)U.S.n/a74,439Not hospitalizedPWD = 6% of all COVID-19 cases
Hospitalized, not in ICUPWD = 24% of all COVID-19 cases
Admitted to ICUPWD = 32% of all COVID-19 cases
Multicenter cohort study (66)Chinan/a191Risk of in-hospital death in PWD compared with those without (unadjusted)OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.35–6.05
Retrospective review (67)Chinan/a1,590Likelihood of reaching composite end point (admission to ICU, intensive ventilation, or death) in PWD compared with those without (age- and smoking status–adjusted)HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.03–2.45
Retrospective cohort study (15)**U.K.n/a17,425,445 (5,683 deaths attributed to COVID-19)Risk of in-hospital death in PWD compared with those without (age-, sex-, and comorbidities-adjusted)HbA1c <7.5% (58 mmol/mol); HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.40–1.60. HbA1c ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol); 2.36 (2.18–2.56)
Population cohort study (12)**U.K.n/a61,414,470 (23,804 COVID-19–related deaths)Risk of in-hospital death in PWD compared with those without (adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity, geographical region)Type 1 diabetes OR 3.50 (95% CI 3.15–3.89); type 2 diabetes OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.97–2.09)
  • HR, hazard ratio; OR, odds ratio; RR, risk ratio.

  • * Definition of severe disease was often not clear; we report here what was reported in the primary literature. Many of the systematic reviews include overlapping studies and have issues with quality and reporting.

  • ** Preprint—methods and data have not been subject to peer review.