Table 1

Preliminary data: patient characteristics, symptoms, and outcomes in the T1D COVID-19 study

Patient attributesAll patients (N = 64)COVID-19–positive case group (N = 33)COVID-19–like case group (N = 31)
Mean age in years (SD)20.9 (14.84)24.8 (17.49)16.8 (10.10)
Age categories
 ≤18 years42 (65.6)17 (51.52)25 (80.6)
 >19 years22 (34.4)16 (48.5)6 (19.4)
Female sex39 (60.9)18 (54.5)15 (48.3)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white31 (48.4)12 (36.4)19 (61.3)
 Non-Hispanic black12 (18.8)10 (30.3)2 (6.5)
 Hispanic16 (25)7 (21.2)9 (29.0)
 Asian/other/unknown5 (7.8)4 (12.1)1 (3.23)
Education level (patient, or parent if patient <18 years of age)
 No high school8 (12.5)3 (9.1)5 (16.1)
 High school graduate12 (18.8)7 (21.2)5 (16.1)
 College graduate or above7 (10.9)6 (18.2)1 (3.2)
 Unknown37 (57.8)17 (51.5)20 (64.5)
Insurance
 Private20 (31.3)9 (27.3)11 (35.5)
 Public36 (56.3)23 (69.7)13 (41.9)
HbA1c median, %8.08.58.0
Duration of type 1 diabetes
 New onset6 (9.8)5 (15.6)1 (3.4)
 <1 year2 (3.1)2 (6.9)
 1–2 years9 (14.8)2 (6.3)7 (24.1)
 3–5 years15 (24.6)9 (28.1)6 (20.7)
 6–10 years12 (19.7)4 (12.5)8 (27.6)
 >10 years17 (27.9)12 (37.5)5 (17.2)
CGM use (yes)32 (52.5)13 (40.6)19 (65.5)
Insulin pump use (yes)27 (44.3)9 (28.1)18 (62.1)
Care managed remotely (yes)37 (60.7)15 (46.9)22 (75.9)
Video/telemedicine as primary mode of remote care17 (46)8 (53.3)9 (40.9)
COVID-19 symptoms and medical care information
 Most prevalent symptoms
  High blood glucose32 (50.8)16 (48.5)16 (51.6)
  Elevated temperature26 (41.3)15 (45.5)11 (36.7)
  Dry cough24 (38.1)13 (39.4)11 (36.7)
  Nausea19 (30.2)9 (27.3)10 (33.3)
  Excess fatigue18 (28.6)11 (33.3)7 (23.3)
  Body/headaches17 (27.0)7 (21.2)10 (33.3)
  Shortness of breath17 (27.0)10 (30.3)7 (23.3)
  Vomiting16 (25.4)11 (33.3)5 (16.7)
  Loss of taste7 (11.1)3 (9.1)4 (13.3)
  Loss of smell6 (9.5)1 (3.0)5 (16.7)
  Low blood glucose5 (7.9)1 (3.0)5 (16.7)
  Loose stools5 (7.9)5 (16.7)
 Most prevalent comorbidities
  Obesity25 (39.7)13 (39.4)12 (40)
  Hypertension/CVD9 (14.3)4 (12.1)5 (16.7)
  Asthma5 (7.9)5 (16.7)
  Hashimoto thyroiditis7 (4.8)4 (12.1)3 (10.0)
  Hyperlipidemia3 (4.8)1 (3.0)2 (6.7)
 Smoking/vaping history
  Yes (current or previous)6 (9.8)2 (6.3)4 (13.8)
  No41 (64.1)20 (60.1)21(67.7)
  Unknown15 (23.4)11 (32.3)4 (12.9)
 Influenza vaccine this season
  Yes26 (42.6)14 (43.8)12 (41.4)
  No12 (18.8)3 (8.8)9 (29.0)
  Unknown26 (40.6)16 (47.1)10 (32.3)
 Highest level of care
  Intensive care unit14 (22.2)10 (30.3)4 (13.3)
  Inpatient or hospitalization11 (17.5)9 (27.2)2 (6.7)
  Emergency room5 (7.9)1 (3.0)4 (13.3)
  Clinic or urgent care8 (12.7)4 (12.1)4 (13.3)
  At home22 (34.9)9 (27.3)13 (43.3)
  Unknown3 (4.8)3 (10.0)
 Adverse outcome
  Death2 (3.2)1 (3.0)1 (3.3)
  DKA19 (30.2)15 (45.5)4 (13.3)
  Severe hypoglycemia3 (4.8)1 (3.0)2 (6.7)
  Other6 (9.5)5 (15.2)1 (3.3)
  None33 (52.4)13 (39.4)20 (66.7)
  Unknown3 (4.8)1 (3.0)2 (6.7)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. Data submitted to the registry as of 5 May 2020. CGM, continuous glucose monitoring; CVD, cardiovascular disease.