Table 1

Baseline characteristics by sex and diabetes status

WomenMen
All (n = 263,024)No diabetes (n = 221,592)Prediabetes (n = 30,939)Undiagnosed diabetes (n = 1,253)Previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 9,240)All (n = 208,375)No diabetes (n = 170,672)Prediabetes (n = 23,486)Undiagnosed diabetes (n = 1,801)Previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 12,416)
General characteristics
 Age (years)56.2 (8.0)55.6 (8.0)59.8 (6.6)58.9 (6.9)58.3 (7.7)56.3 (8.2)55.7 (8.3)58.6 (7.6)57.3 (7.8)59.4 (7.2)
 Ethnicity
  White247,983 (95)211,266 (96)27,885 (91)1,003 (81)7,829 (86)195,940 (95)162,750 (96)20,864 (90)1,519 (85)10,807 (88)
  Nonwhite/mixed14,006 (5)9,569 (4)2,872 (9)235 (19)1,330 (15)11,271 (5)7,072 (4)2,433 (10)262 (15)1,504 (12)
 SES
  High177,791 (68)152,028 (69)19,949 (65)698 (56)5,116 (55)139,662 (67)116,866 (69)14,636 (62)993 (55)7,167 (58)
  Low84,921 (32)69,310 (31)10,950 (35)553 (44)4,108 (45)68,441 (33)53,594 (31)8,813 (38)803 (45)5,231 (42)
 Smoking
  Never157,131 (60)133,337 (60)17,631 (57)728 (59)5,435 (59)104,685 (50)89,200 (52)9,666 (42)719 (40)5,100 (41)
  Past81,592 (31)69,100 (31)9,184 (30)378 (31)2,930 (32)76,900 (37)61,270 (36)9,175 (39)755 (42)5,700 (46)
  Current23,067 (9)18,222 (8)3,931 (13)131 (11)783 (9)25,752 (12)19,499 (11)4,452 (19)308 (17)1,493 (12)
Diabetes characteristics
 Diabetes duration (years)NANANANA8.4 (10.0)NANANANA8.5 (10.1)
 Median diabetes duration (years) (IQR)NANANANA5 (2–10)NANANANA5 (2–10)
 Diabetes type 1^NANANANA500 (5)NANANANA531 (4)
 HbA1c (%)5.4 (0.5)5.3 (0.3)5.9 (0.2)7.4 (1.5)6.9 (1.3)5.5 (0.7)5.3 (0.3)5.9 (0.2)7.7 (1.6)7.0 (1.3)
 Median HbA1c (%) (IQR)5.4 (5.1–5.6)5.3 (5.1–5.5)5.8 (5.8–6)6.9 (6.7–7.5)6.7 (6–7.5)5.4 (5.1–5.6)5.3 (5.1–5.5)5.9 (5.8–6)7.1 (6.7–8)6.7 (6.1–7.6)
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)35.7 (5.8)34.0 (3.0)41.0 (1.9)58.0 (16.7)51.8 (14.1)36.2 (7.1)33.9 (3.0)41.1 (2.0)60.8 (17.9)52.8 (13.9)
 Median HbA1c (mmol/mol) (IQR)35.1 (32.7–37.6)34.4 (32.2–36.3)40.4 (39.5–41.9)51.8 (49.5–58.5)49.4 (42.0–58.5)35.1 (32.7–37.8)34.3 (32.1–36.2)40.5 (39.6–42.0)53.6 (49.9–64.3)50.1 (43.2–59.2)
Measurements
 BMI (kg/m2)27 (5.1)26.5 (4.8)28.8 (5.7)32.7 (6.3)31.8 (6.7)27.7 (4.2)27.3 (3.9)28.9 (4.6)31.4 (5.2)30.7 (5.3)
 Systolic BP (mmHg)135.2 (19.2)134.3 (19.1)140.3 (19.1)146.74 (19.4)139.2 (17.7)141.1 (17.4)140.5 (17.3)143.9 (17.8)147.9 (18.1)142.6 (16.6)
 Diastolic BP (mmHg)80.8 (10)80.5 (10.0)82.4 (9.9)86.3 (10.2)80.9 (9.7)84.5 (9.9)84.4 (9.9)85.6 (9.9)88.8 (10.2)82.6 (9.4)
 Cholesterol (mmol/L)5.9 (1.1)5.9 (1.1)6.1 (1.2)6.1 (1.3)4.8 (1.1)5.6 (1.1)5.7 (1.0)5.6 (1.1)5.7 (1.2)4.4 (1.0)
Prescribed medication
 Antidiabetic medication
  OralNANANANA4,109 (73)NANANANA6,045 (75)
  InsulinNANANANA834 (15)NANANANA1,015 (13)
  Oral + insulinNANANANA709 (13)NANANANA959 (12)
 Antihypertensive medication32,317 (12)21,483 (10)5,899 (19)281 (22)4,654 (50)32,553 (16)20,265 (12)4,893 (21)384 (21)7,011 (57)
 Lipid-lowering medication23,057 (9)12,680 (5.7)4,583 (15)227 (18)5,567 (60)29,535 (14)16,204 (10)4,664 (20)315 (18)8,352 (67)
  • Data are mean (SD) or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure; IQR, interquartile range; NA, not applicable.

  • ^ Participants with self-reported diabetes onset before the age of 30 years and using insulin were considered to have type 1 diabetes. Because of missing data, not all variables included add up to n = 208,375 for men and n = 263,024 for women.