Table 1

Characteristics of adults with type 1 diabetes with and without COVID-19 infection admitted to a tertiary center between 1 March 2020 and 1 June 2020

COVID-19+COVID-19−P value
Number of patients728
Age (years)51.8 (13.4)52.3 (12.9)0.93
Sex (n male/n female)5/212/160.17
Race/ethnicity (n non-Hispanic White/n non-Hispanic Black)3/426/20.01*
Weight (lb)175.3 (45)155.1 (30.3)0.16
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 (5.8)24.3 (4.1)0.34
Glucose on admission (mg/dL)263 (228)269 (172)0.93
HbA1c on admission (%)8.4 (1.2)9.2 (2.7)0.45
HbA1c prior to admission (%)9.4 (2.4)8.7 (2.2)0.46
Insulin treatment at home (MDI/CSII/pancreas transplant)7/0/021/5/2
Basal insulin (units)23.5 (16.7)23.7 (11.6)0.97
Bolus insulin (units)27.5 (24.3)23.5 (10.9)0.51
Total daily insulin dose (units)47.5 (38.6)43.9 (16.5)0.7
Total daily insulin/kg (units/kg/day)0.7 (0.6)0.6 (0.3)0.53
DKA (yes/no)1/62/260.55
CAD/CVD, % (n)28.5% (2)28.5% (8)0.95
Retinopathy, % (n)42.8% (3)42.8% (12)1
Neuropathy, % (n)28.5% (2)42.8% (12)0.47
Nephropathy, % (n)57.1% (4)82.1% (23)0.16
Transplant status, % (n)14.3% (1)4.3% (4)1
Gastroparesis, % (n)14.35% (1)17.9% (5)0.82
Hypertension, % (n)57.1% (4)50% (14)0.87
Length of hospital stay (no. days)10.6 (8.2)7.3 (6.6)0.27
C-reactive protein (mg/dL)60.5 (36.3)101.7 (94.6)0.35
d-dimer (ng/mL)1,525.5 (1,144.8)1,670.8 (2,330.7)0.86
Ferritin (ng/mL)1,145.9 (1,377.4)705.4 (833.7)0.36
Fibrinogen (mg/dL)451.2 (211.9)482.8 (241.3)0.95
Troponin T (ng/mL)0.04 (0.07)0.09 (0.14)0.43
APTT (s)32.7 (3.3)32.0 (7.0)0.88
PT (s)14.3 (3.4)15.7 (10.4)0.58
Hemoglobin (g/dL)10.6 (2.3)10.9 (2.0)0.78
Hematocrit (%)33.0 (8.2)33.7 (5.7)0.69
White blood cell count (K/μL)7.2 (4.1)14.8 (32.7)0.08
Lymphocytes (%)18.1 (11.8)13.5 (7.7)0.19
Neutrophils (%)71.0 (12.2)77.0 (9.0)0.24
Platelets (K/μL)227.4 (112.1)287.8 (145.1)0.27
Creatinine (mg/dL)2.2 (1.3)2.1 (2.8)0.96
Bicarbonate (mEq/L)21.5 (7.0)21.8 (4.3)0.89
Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L)47.3 (50)41.8 (51.3)0.8
Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L)35.9 (29.9)27.9 (28.4)0.51
Composite outcome (ICU, intubation, or death), n (%)2 (28.5%)4 (14.3%)0.37
  • Data are in units (SD) unless otherwise indicated. CAD, coronary artery disease; CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; MDI, multiple daily injections; PT, prothrombin time; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time. *Statisically significant.