Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients with T1D according to hospital admission indication

HospitalizedNot hospitalized (n = 2,204)P value
COVID-19 (n = 5)Other indication (n = 128)*COVID-19 vs. otherCOVID-19 vs. not hospitalizedOther vs. not hospitalized
Female2 (40)80 (63)1,050 (48)0.002
Age (years)66 (58–80)56 (40–68)49 (35–61)0.0100.003
BMI (kg/m2)24.0 (22.6–28.4)25.4 (22.7–27.8)25.5 (23.1–28.2)
Glucose (mg/dL)239 (120–309)162 (121–226)162 (115–221)0.000
HbA1c (%)8.2 (7.8–8.6)8.1 (7.4–8.9)7.7 (7.1–8.4)0.000
HbA1c (mmol/mol)66 (62–70)65 (57–74)60 (54–68)
MDI4 (80)91 (71)1,652 (75)
CSII1 (20)37 (29)552 (25)
CGM5 (100)93 (73)1,810 (82)0.007
Systolic BP (mmHg)140 (135–149)134 (123–147)134 (124–149)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)84 (74–85)75 (69–85)80 (71–86)
eGFR (mL/min)82 (46–91)70 (45–97)82 (65–99)0.049
History of CVD1 (20)25 (20)169 (8)0.000
History of CKD1 (20)37 (29)270 (12)0.000
History of AHT4 (80)71 (55)801 (36)0.000
ACE inhibitor/ARB2 (40)56 (44)689 (31)0.029
  • Data are n (%) or median (interquartile range). —, not statistically significant; AHT, arterial hypertension; BP, blood pressure; CGM, continuous glucose monitoring; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin injection; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; MDI, multiple daily injections. *One patient was hospitalized for COVID-19 and a second time for another indication (DKA); see text for details.