Table 1

Children presenting with new-onset type 1 diabetes or with DKA and known type 1 diabetes

All patients (n = 33)New onset type 1 diabetes (n = 30)
SARS-CoV-2 not tested/ negative* (n = 25)SARS-CoV-2 PCR or IgG positive (n = 5)
Not in DKA (n = 8, 32%)DKA (n = 17, 68%)Not in DKA (n = 1, 20%)DKA (n = 4, 80%)Known type 1 diabetes with DKA (n = 3)§
Median age (IQR), years10.9 (6.8)12.0 (6.0)10.3 (6.2)5.811.6 (1.7)13.2 (2.3)
Male22 (68)6 (75)11 (65)0 (0)3 (75)2 (67)
Median weight for age z score (IQR)0.12 (1.44)0.90 (2.09)0.04 (1.62)−0.230.96 (1.61)0.12 (0.44)
Ethnicity
 White European12 (36)3 (38)7 (41)0 (0)2 (50)0 (0)
 Black African8 (24)2 (25)4 (24)0 (0)1 (25)1 (33)
 Arab6 (18)1 (13)3 (18)1 (100)1 (25)0 (0)
 Asian3 (9)1 (13)2 (12)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Other4 (12)1 (13)1 (6)0 (0)0 (0)2 (67)
Family history of type 1 diabetes11 (33)6 (75)4 (24)1 (100)0 (0)0 (0)
Comorbidities2 (6)1 (13)1 (6)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Median duration of symptoms (IQR), days7 (10)14 (17)7 (7)1010 (10)1 (2)
Median plasma glucose on presentation (IQR), mg/dL432 (200)354 (155)465 (177)475484 (135)427 (87)
HbA1c, median, % (mmol/mol)11.6 (103)11.2 (99)11.6 (103)11.3 (100)12.5 (113)10.0 (86)
Median pH on presentation (IQR)7.19 (0.28)7.37 (0.06)7.14 (0.29)7.426.90 (0.08)7.24 (0.11)
Severe DKA (pH <7.1)12 (36)8 (47)3 (75)1 (33)
Median plasma lactate on presentation (IQR), mmol/L1.9 (2.5)1.0 (0.04)2.1 (2.3)1.54.6 (0.8)1.3
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. IQR, interquartile range.

  • * Eight children had no testing, six had SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing only, two had SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing only, nine had both SARS-CoV-2 PCR and IgG.

  • Positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG.

  • Two positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR and two positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG.

  • § One child had no testing, two children had negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing only.