Table 2

Results of Cox regression analysis evaluating the determinants of COVID-related mortality risk in the entire population of 385 patients and in the subgroup of 90 patients with type 2 diabetes

All patients (n = 385)Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 90)
Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)aUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)a
Age ≥70 years5.73 (3.54–9.26)*2.76 (1.30–5.86)*
Sex (female vs. male)0.94 (0.62–1.43)1.06 (0.51–2.18)
Diabetes1.84 (1.23–2.76)*1.33 (0.88–2.0)
Hypertension3.02 (1.92–4.76)*1.84 (1.15–2.95)*2.33 (0.91–5.97)2.20 (0.85–5.70)
Obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2)1.12 (0.69–1.82)1.33 (0.81–2.18)1.3 (0.6–2.7)1.61 (0.72–3.60)
CAD2.58 (1.74–3.83)*1.56 (1.04–2.35)*1.93 (1.01–3.68)*1.75 (0.90–3.38)
CKD3.10 (1.90–5.05)*2.07 (1.27–3.38)*2.2 (1.09–4.47)*2.06 (1.01–4.21)
Stroke3.04 (1.81–5.13)*2.09 (1.23–3.55)*1.75 (0.84–3.61)1.54 (0.74–3.23)
COPD1.41 (0.81–2.46)0.95 (0.54–1.66)1.53 (0.7–3.35)1.18 (0.52–2.67)
Cancer2.58 (1.70–3.93)*1.57 (1.08–2.42)*1.67 (0.82–3.41)1.16 (0.54–2.47)
Lipid-lowering drugs1.8 (1.2–2.7)*1.1 (0.7–1.8)1.3 (0.6–2.6)1.3 (0.6–2.6)
Antiplatelet/anticoagulant1.4 (0.9–2.2)0.8 (0.5–1.2)1.1 (0.5–2.2)1 (0.5–2.0)
ACE-I/ARB1.2 (0.8–1.9)0.8 (0.5–1.3)0.8 (0.4–1.6)0.7 (0.3–1.4)
Calcium channel blockers1.8 (1.1–2.9)*1.3 (0.8–2.0)1.8 (0.9–3.6)1.7 (0.8–3.6)
β-Blockers1.6 (1–2.4)*1.2 (0.8–1.9)3.1 (1.5–6.4)*3.21 (1.5–6.6)*
Diuretics2 (1.2–3.1)*1.3 (0.8–2.0)1.6 (0.8–3.3)1.4 (0.7–2.9)
Insulin3.34 (1.74–6.41)*3.05 (1.57–5.95)*
Metformin0.43 (0.21–0.85)*0.55 (0.27–1.11)
Sulfonylureas0.34 (0.08–1.42)0.28 (0.06–1.20)
DPP4-I0.14 (0.02–1.01)0.13 (0.02–0.92)*
SGLT2-INANA
GLP-1 RANANA
PioglitazoneNANA
Glycemia (mmol/L)1.007 (1.003–1.010)*1.007 (1.004–1.010)*1.003 (0.998–1.008)1.004 (0.999–1.010)
Creatinine (mg/dL)1.2 (1.1–1.3)*1.17 (1.08–1.27)*1 (0.9–1.2)1.09 (0.96–1.24)
Lymphocytes (×103/mm3)0.60 (0.40–0.89)*0.74 (0.5–1.1)0.28 (0.13–0.61)*0.27 (0.11–0.64)*
IL-6 (per 1-SD increase)3.23 (2.16–4.84)*3.22 (2.05–5.05)*2.1 (1.21–3.64)*2.02 (1.15–3.56)*
d-dimer (per 1-SD increase)2.49 (1.86–3.34)*2.25 (1.66–3.04)*1.54 (0.96–2.46)1.32 (0.81–2.14)
LDH (per 1-SD increase)1.62 (1.27–2.05)*1.68 (1.32–2.13)*1.53 (1.01–2.33)*1.56 (1.05–2.33)*
Ferritin (per 1-SD increase)1.33 (0.96–1.85)1.42 (0.99–2)1.58 (0.92–2.7)1.71 (0.96–3.04)
CRP (mg/dL)1.05 (1.03–1.08)*1.06 (1.03–1.08)*1.04 (1.00–1.08)*1.04 (0.99–1.09)
PCT (ng/mL)1.08 (1.06–1.11)*1.07 (1.03–1.1)*1.08 (1.02–1.15)*1.28 (0.97–1.69)
Multivariate HR (95% CI)
All patientsPatients with type 2 diabetes
Age ≥70 years7.24 (2.76–19.00)*3.23 (0.70–14.88)
Glycemia (mmol/L)1.006 (1.001–1.011)*1.22 (1.04–1.44)*
IL-6 (per 1-SD increase)2.58 (1.44–4.63)*2.47 (1.28–4.78)*
d-dimer (per 1-SD increase)2.03 (1.08–3.80)*1.89 (0.81–4.39)
CRP (mg/dL)0.98 (0.92–1.05)0.93 (0.85–1.01)
  • HR, hazard ratio; NA, not assessed.

  • a Adjusted for age and sex.

  • * P < 0.05.

  • Not assessed because of small numbers (SGLT2-I n = 5, GLP-1 RA n = 6, pioglitazone n = 1).