Table 1

Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, medications, and outcomes in 385 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 stratified according to the presence of diabetes

No diabetes (n = 295)Diabetes (n = 90)P
Male/female sex193 (65.4)/102 (34.6)65 (72.2)/25 (27.8)0.230
Age (years)63 (52–74)71 (64–78)<0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension121 (41)69 (76.7)<0.001
 Obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2)99 (33.7)43 (47.8)0.117
 CAD50 (16.9)35 (38.9)<0.001
 CKD15 (5.1)17 (18.9)<0.001
 COPD20 (6.8)14 (15.6)0.010
 Stroke12 (4.1)15 (16.7)<0.001
 Cancer43 (14.6)19 (21.1)0.140
Laboratory findings
 Glycemia (mmol/L)5.7 ± 1.49.1 ± 3.4<0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL)0.95 ± 1.11.48 ± 1.90.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)90.1 ± 26.472.4 ± 31.2<0.001
 Lymphocytes (×103/mm3)1.1 ± 0.51 ± 0.50.924
 IL-6 (pg/mL)60 ± 9985 ± 670.125
d-dimer (ng/mL)1,090 ± 2,721928 ± 1,6810.621
 LDH (units/L)338 ± 152333 ± 1310.792
 Ferritin (ng/mL)634 ± 579591 ± 5050.574
 CRP (mg/dL)9.4 ± 7.711 ± 7.50.900
 PCT (ng/mL)0.51 ± 1.20.49 ± 0.80.905
Medications
 Lipid-lowering drugs43 (14.6)29 (32.2)<0.001
 Antiplatelet/anticoagulant66 (22.4)41 (45.6)<0.001
 ACE-I/ARB72 (24.4)40 (44.4)<0.001
 Calcium channel blockers26 (8.8)28 (31.1)<0.001
 β-Blockers63 (21.3)33 (36.6)0.003
 Diuretics30 (10.1)25 (27.7)<0.001
O2 therapy
 Supplemental O2156 (52.8)40 (44.4)0.168
 Noninvasive mechanical ventilation38 (12.9)24 (26.7)0.002
 Invasive ventilation25 (8.5)5 (5.6)0.366
Length of hospitalization (days)8 (6–12)9 (6–11.75)0.600
Mortality64 (21.7)38 (42.3)<0.001
  • Categorical data n (%), and continuous data are means ± SD or median (IQR).