Table 1

Characteristics of participants by different levels of TIR

TotalTIRP value
≤50%51–70%71–85%>85%
Number of participants6,2251,6621,6371,4801,446
Age, years61.7 ± 11.962.9 ± 12.162.2 ± 11.661.6 ± 11.859.7 ± 11.9<0.001
Men, n (%)3,404 (54.7)862 (51.9)899 (54.9)835 (56.4)808 (55.9)0.046
BMI, kg/m224.9 ± 3.524.8 ± 3.624.5 ± 3.425.0 ± 3.525.3 ± 3.6<0.001
Diabetes duration, years9.7 ± 7.411.0 ± 7.610.1 ± 7.59.4 ± 7.27.8 ± 6.7<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg133 ± 17134 ± 18133 ± 17132 ± 16131 ± 17<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg80 ± 980 ± 980 ± 980 ± 1080 ± 90.981
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.74 ± 1.194.93 ±1.424.78 ± 1.174.65 ± 1.064.57 ± 0.99<0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.78 ± 1.82.09 ± 2.541.68 ± 1.511.67 ± 1.291.67 ± 1.44<0.001
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.12 ± 0.311.10 ± 0.321.14 ± 0.311.12 ± 0.311.12 ± 0.290.002
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L2.96 ± 0.953.01 ± 0.983.01 ± 1.012.93 ± 0.92.86 ± 0.86<0.001
HbA1c, %8.9 ± 2.210.1 ± 2.09.4 ± 2.18.5 ± 2.07.4 ± 1.7<0.001
HbA1c, mmol/mol74.0 ± 24.087.0 ± 21.979.0 ± 23.069.0 ± 21.957.0 ± 18.6<0.001
Mean glucose, mmol/L9.2 ± 1.911.6 ± 1.49.4 ± 0.88.2 ± 0.87.2 ± 0.8<0.001
Glucose coefficient of variation, %25.7 ± 8.425.4 ± 8.529.4 ± 8.727.5 ± 7.120.3 ± 5.8<0.001
TIR, %64.6 ± 24.331.7 ± 13.660.7 ± 5.778.0 ± 4.293.0 ± 4.6<0.001
History of CVD, n (%)1,323 (21.3)397 (23.9)357 (21.8)298 (20.1)271 (18.7)0.003
History of cancer, n (%)285 (4.6)75 (4.5)76 (4.6)69 (4.7)65 (4.5)0.994
Current smoker, n (%)1,478 (23.7)384 (23.1)407 (24.9)357 (24.1)330 (22.8)0.512
Use of insulin, n (%)4,164 (66.9)1,425 (85.7)1,277 (78.0)934 (63.1)528 (36.5)<0.001
Use of antihypertensive drugs, n (%)3,382 (54.3)954 (57.4)855 (52.2)820 (55.4)753 (52.1)0.005
Use of aspirin, n (%)2,935 (47.1)826 (49.7)784 (47.9)678 (45.8)647 (44.7)0.028
Use of statins, n (%)2,397 (38.5)664 (40.0)668 (40.8)544 (36.8)521 (36.0)0.013
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.