Table 2

β coefficients and 95% CIs of the associations between glycemic status and physical function decline and disability progression over 12 years using mixed-effect models

Chair standWalking speedDisability score
Glycemic status × timeNo.Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)
Normoglycemia × time1,212ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Prediabetes × time6500.33** (0.06–0.60)0.33a** (0.05–0.61)−0.005** (−0.009 to −0.002)−0.006a** (−0.010 to −0.002)0.06* (0.02–0.09)0.05a* (0.01–0.08)
 Diabetes × time1511.05** (0.55–1.54)1.08** (0.52–1.65)−0.007* (−0.014 to −0.001)−0.008* (−0.015 to −0.002)0.13** (0.06–0.20)0.14** (0.10–0.23)
 Controlled × time1110.95** (0.39–1.50)0.95** (0.30–1.62)−0.005 (−0.008 to 0.002)−0.006 (−0.014 to 0.001)0.11** (0.04–0.19)0.12** (0.04–0.21)
 Uncontrolled × time391.56** (0.57–2.53)1.49** (0.42–2.56)−0.016* (−0.029 to −0.003)−0.014* (−0.028 to −0.001)0.17** (0.04–0.30)0.21** (0.01–0.41)
Diabetes × time vs. prediabetes × time0.72** (0.20–1.24)0.74* (0.14–1.34)−0.002 (−0.009 to 0.005)−0.002 (−0.009 to 0.004)0.07* (0.01–0.14)0.08* (0.01–0.14)
  • Model 1 adjusted for baseline age, sex, and education. Model 2 adjusted for model 1 + BMI, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, SBP, high total cholesterol, eGFR, depression and mood disorders, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy.

  • a Model 2 additionally adjusted for incident diabetes. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.