Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants by glycemic status (n = 2,013)

CharacteristicsNormoglycemia (n = 1,212)Prediabetes (n = 650)Diabetes (n = 151)P value
Age (years)69 ± 9.272 ± 9.5*71 ± 8.5*<0.001
 60–78 years876 (72.3)390 (60.0)96 (63.6)<0.001
 ≥78 years336 (27.7)260 (40.0)55 (36.4)
Female sex770 (63.5)429 (66.0)74 (49.0)<0.001
Education ≥elementary1,072 (88.7)563 (86.6)128 (84.8)0.209
Living in institutions13 (1.07)4 (0.62)2 (1.32)0.549
BMI (kg/m2)25 ± 3.726 ± 3.8*28 ± 3.9*<0.001
Smoking status0.082
 Never smoker575 (47.9)286 (44.3)63 (42.3)
 Former smoker480 (39.9)254 (39.4)69 (46.3)
 Current smoker147 (12.2)105 (16.3)17 (11.4)
Alcohol consumption<0.001
 No or occasional281 (23.4)216 (33.3)56 (37.3)
 Light to moderate699 (58.1)319 (49.2)71 (47.3)
 Heavy223 (18.5)113 (17.4)23 (15.3)
Physically active969 (80.0)493 (75.6)110 (72.9)0.034
MMSE score28.8 ± 2.628.6 ± 1.828.7 ± 1.70.868
SBP (mmHg)142 ± 19.6144 ± 18.8147 ± 19.90.024
DBP (mmHg)82 ± 10.481 ± 10.180 ± 11.50.014
Hypertension849 (70.1)483 (74.3)133 (88.1)<0.001
High total cholesterol611 (52.5)368 (56.8)82 (55.0)0.214
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)68 ± 11.765 ± 12.965 ± 15.6<0.001
Depression and mood disorders98 (8.09)43 (6.62)17 (11.3)0.143
Cerebrovascular disease43 (3.55)36 (5.54)11 (7.28)0.031
Peripheral neuropathy19 (1.57)6 (0.92)4 (2.65)0.211§
Number of CVDs<0.001
 01,038 (85.6)516 (79.4)90 (59.6)
 1131 (10.8)83 (12.8)35 (23.2)
 ≥243 (3.55)51 (7.85)26 (17.2)
Chair stand (s)20 ± 20.821 ± 21.4*25 ± 24.8*0.029
Walking speed (m/s)1.2 ± 0.41.1 ± 0.4*1.0 ± 0.4*<0.001
ADL disability#29 (2.4)15 (2.3)2 (1.3)0.707
IADL disability¤108 (9.1)55 (8.6)18 (12.2)0.390
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

  • # At least one impairment in ADL. ¤At least one impairment in IADL. *Pairwise means comparison with Bonferroni correction: P < 0.05 (reference group, normoglycemia). §Fisher exact test.