Table 4

Adjusted association among delay aversion, A1C, self-care, and quality of life

Sample characteristicA1CGeneral dietSpecific dietExerciseBlood glucose testingFoot carePCSMCS
B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)
Delay aversion−0.01 (−0.05; 0.03)−0.06* (−0.10; −0.01)−0.03* (−0.07; −0.01)−0.03 (−0.08; 0.02)−0.04 (−0.10; 0.02)−0.11*** (−0.16; −0.05)0.14 (−0.15; 0.43)−0.38* (−0.71; −0.06)
Age−0.03** (−0.05; −0.01)0.02 (−0.01; 0.04)0.01 (−0.01; 0.02)0.01 (−0.01; 0.04)0.01 (−0.02; 0.05)0.01 (−0.01; 0.04)0.08 (−0.09; 0.26)0.15 (−0.05; 0.35)
Years of education0.02 (−0.05; 0.08)0.05 (−0.02; 0.13)0.01 (−0.06; 0.06)0.06 (−0.02; 0.14)−0.04 (−0.14; 0.07)−0.11* (−0.21; −0.02)−0.04 (−0.43; 0.34)−0.14 (−0.58; 0.31)
Hours worked per week0.01 (−0.01; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.01; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.03; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)0.01 (−0.09; 0.12)−0.04 (−0.17; 0.08)
Health status−0.01 (−0.24; 0.21)0.17 (−0.09; 0.42)0.12 (−0.08; 0.33)0.60*** (0.31; 0.89)−0.23 (−0.62; 0.08)0.08 (−0.23; 0.39)3.96*** (2.26; 5.66)1.74 (−0.17; 3.66)
Diabetes duration0.03*** (0.01; 0.06)−0.01 (−0.03; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.03; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.04; 0.01)0.07*** (0.03; 0.09)0.02 (−0.01; 0.05)−0.09 (−0.22; 0.05)0.11 (−0.04; 0.26)
VA medical center−0.03 (−0.51; 0.44)−0.13 (−0.66; 0.40)0.16 (−0.26; 0.58)0.03 (−0.57; 0.63)0.24 (−0.48; 0.96)0.25 (−0.39; 0.90)0.83 (−2.78; 4.45)−2.54 (−6.62; 1.53)
Male sex0.15 (−0.33; 0.64)0.29 (−0.27; 0.85)−0.32 (−0.76; 0.13)0.30 (−0.33; 0.93)−0.08 (−0.84; 0.68)−0.25 (−0.94; 0.43)−0.60 (−4.24; 3.03)3.92 (−0.17; 8.02)
Married0.01 (−0.39; 0.40)−0.05 (−0.51; 0.41)−0.05 (−0.41; 0.32)−0.10 (−0.62; 0.42)0.31 (−0.32; 0.93)0.01 (−0.56; 0.57)0.69 (−2.12; 3.51)−1.00 (−4.17; 2.17)
Race/ethnicity
 Black0.21 (−0.21; 0.63)−0.01 (−0.48; 0.47)0.22 (−0.16; 0.60)0.56* (0.02; 1.09)0.04 (−0.61; 0.69)0.44 (−0.15; 1.02)3.20* (0.53; 5.88)0.94 (−2.08; 3.95)
 Hispanic/other−0.05 (−1.02; 0.92)0.44 (−0.67; 1.56)0.77 (−0.12; 1.66)0.65 (−0.62; 1.91)−0.41 (−1.94; 1.11)−0.12 (−1.49; 1.25)1.65 (−5.84; 9.15)11.76** (3.30; 20.22)
Insurance
 Private0.17 (−0.52; 0.87)−0.18 (−0.98; 0.61)−0.17 (−0.80; 0.46)−0.18 (−1.08; 0.71)0.45 (−0.63; 1.53)0.24 (−0.73; 1.21)2.76 (−1.82; 7.35)−3.59 (−8.77; 1.58)
 Government0.31 (−0.26; 0.89)−0.19 (−0.85; 0.46)0.08 (−0.44; 0.61)−0.31 (−1.05; 0.43)0.85 (−0.45; 1.75)0.70 (−0.10; 1.51)1.91 (−2.09; 5.91)−2.90 (−7.42; 1.61)
Income, USD
 10,000–19,999−0.06 (−0.64; 0.52)−0.35 (−1.02; 0.34)0.18 (−0.35; 0.71)−0.54 (−1.30; 0.21)0.26 (−0.65; 1.18)0.10 (−0.72; 0.92)1.64 (−1.94; 5.23)−1.07 (−5.12; 2.97)
 20,000–34,9990.55 (−0.10; 1.21)−0.32 (−1.08; 0.043)0.35 (−0.25; 0.96)−0.56 (−1.41; 0.29)−0.23 (−1.27; 0.79)0.01 (−0.91; 0.94)−2.02 (−6.21; 2.17)0.39 (−4.33; 5.12)
 ≥35,0000.22 (−0.46; 0.90)−0.17 (−0.95; 0.61)0.38 (−0.23; 1.01)−0.86 (−1.74; 0.02)−0.32 (−1.38; 0.75)0.02 (−0.94; 0.98)−0.85 (−5.07; 3.36)1.05 (−3.69; 5.81)
  • Reference groups: academic medical center site, female sex, not married, White race, no insurance, income <$10,000. B, unstandardized β coefficient; VA, Veterans Affairs.

  • Statistically significant at *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.