Table 3

Adjusted association among delay discounting, A1C, self-care, and quality of life

Sample characteristicA1CGeneral dietSpecific dietExerciseBlood glucose testingFoot carePCSMCS
B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)
Delay discounting−0.01 (−0.05; 0.04)−0.06* (−0.12; −0.01)−0.07** (−0.12; −0.03)−0.01 (−0.07; 0.05)−0.05 (−0.13; 0.02)−0.10** (−0.17; −0.02)0.08 (−0.30; 0.46)−0.37 (−081; 0.07)
Age−0.03** (−0.05; −0.01)0.02 (−0.01; 0.04)0.01 (−0.01; 0.02)0.01 (−0.02; 0.04)0.01 (−0.02; 0.05)0.02 (−0.01; 0.05)0.11 (−0.06; 0.28)0.15 (−0.05; 0.34)
Years of education0.02 (−0.05; 0.08)0.05 (−0.03; 0.13)−0.01 (−0.07; 0.06)0.06 (−0.02; 0.15)−0.04 (−0.14; 0.06)−0.11* (−0.21; −0.01)−0.06 (−0.46; 0.34)−0.15 (−0.61; 0.31)
Hours worked per week0.01 (−0.01; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02; 0.01)0.01 (−0.10; 0.11)−0.03 (−0.15; 0.09)
Health status0.01 (−0.23; 0.23)0.20 (−0.05; 0.46)0.13 (−0.07; 0.33)0.62*** (0.33; 0.92)−0.24 (−0.59; 0.10)0.14 (−0.17; 0.46)3.98*** (2.28; 5.68)1.72 (−0.22; 3.65)
Diabetes duration0.04*** (0.01; 0.05)−0.01 (−0.03; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.03; 0.01)−0.01 (−0.04; 0.02)0.06*** (0.03; 0.09)0.02 (−0.01; 0.05)−0.09 (−0.23; 0.05)0.11 (−0.05; 0.26)
VA medical center−0.03 (−0.50; 0.45)−0.12 (−0.66; 0.41)0.19 (−0.23; 0.61)0.01 (−0.59; 0.62)0.29 (−0.42; 1.01)0.23 (−0.43; 0.89)0.94 (−2.65; 4.54)−2.99 (−7.08; 1.09)
Male sex0.17 (−0.33; 0.66)0.26 (−0.30; 0.82)−0.30 (−0.74; 0.14)0.22 (−0.42; 0.86)−0.12 (−0.87; 0.64)−0.27 (−0.97; 0.42)−0.21 (−3.78; 3.36)3.67 (−0.38; 7.73)
Married−0.03 (−0.44; 0.37)−0.08 (−0.54; 0.38)−0.02 (−0.38; 0.35)−0.14 (−0.66; 0.39)0.33 (−0.29; 0.95)−0.03 (−0.60; 0.54)1.02 (−1.78; 3.82)−1.56 (−4.74; 1.62)
Race/ethnicity
 Black0.24 (−0.18; 0.66)−0.02 (−0.51; 0.45)0.23 (−0.15; 0.60)0.50 (−0.04; 1.04)0.10 (−0.54; 0.75)0.41 (−0.18; 1.00)3.4* (0.74; 6.09)0.72 (−2.31; 3.76)
 Hispanic/other−0.06 (−1.03; 0.92)0.55 (−0.57; 1.67)0.91* (0.03; 7.79)0.64 (−0.63; 1.92)−0.27 (−1.79; 1.24)0.11 (−1.28; 1.49)2.01 (−5.44; 9.46)11.80** (3.33; 20.27)
Insurance
 Private0.05 (−0.65; 0.74)−0.25 (−1.04; 0.55)−0.15 (−0.78; 0.47)−0.23 (−1.13; 0.67)0.30 (−0.77; 1.37)0.26 (−0.72; 1.24)2.54 (−2.06; 7.14)−3.07 (−8.31; 2.14)
 Government0.21 (−0.37; 0.79)−0.20 (−0.86; 0.45)0.12 (−0.39; 0.64)−0.29 (−1.04; 0.45)0.78 (−0.10; 1.67)0.75 (−0.06; 1.56)1.48 (−2.47; 5.44)−2.40 (−6.89; 2.09)
Income, USD
 10,000–19,999−0.05 (−0.64; 0.54)−0.32 (−0.98; 0.35)0.16 (−0.36; 0.69)−0.46 (−1.22; 0.30)0.26 (−0.64; 1.17)0.11 (−0.72; 0.94)1.14 (−2.48; 4.78)−0.35 (−4.47; 3.77)
 20,000–34,9990.63 (−0.03; 1.29)−0.32 (−1.07; 0.44)0.29 (−0.29; 0.89)−0.52 (−1.38; 0.33)−0.21 (−1.24; 0.81)−0.08 (−1.01; 0.86)−2.42 (−6.62; 1.78)1.03 (−3.74; 5.80)
 ≥35,0000.24 (−0.45; 0.93)−0.23 (−1.01; 0.56)0.28 (−0.33; 0.91)−0.84 (−1.74; 0.05)−0.41 (−1.47; 0.65)−0.11 (−1.08; 0.86)−1.04 (−5.25; 3.16)1.11 (−3.66; 5.88)
  • Reference groups: academic medical center site, female sex, not married, White race, no insurance, income <$10,000. B, unstandardized β coefficient; VA, Veterans Affairs.

  • Statistically significant at *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.