Table 4

Relationships between maternal exposure and adiposity measures

Adiposity measurementGDM vs. unexposedPrepregnancy BMI
β (SE)*P valueβ (SE)*P value
BMI z-score0.16 (0.18)0.3740.16 (0.06)0.007
%BF2.00 (1.43)0.1640.89 (0.47)0.062
WHR0.019 (0.011)0.080.011 (0.004)0.003
WtHR0.019 (0.009)0.0380.008 (0.003)0.012
  • Results adjusted for child’s age and sex, maternal education, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal exposure (maternal prepregnancy BMI [for GDM exposures] or maternal GDM status as a three-categorical variable [for prepregnancy BMI]), and child’s physical activity level. Boldface indicates significance at P < 0.05.

  • * Regression coefficient (SE) from linear regression models. For GDM-related results, a positive β means greater adiposity measurements in the GDM group than in the unexposed group, whereas a negative β means the opposite data pattern. For prepregnancy BMI-related results, a positive β means a positive relationship between prepregnancy BMI and each adiposity measurement, whereas a negative β means a negative relationship.