Table 2

RRs of n-3 fatty acid biomarkers and incident T2D

ExposureStudies, nCases, nAnalysis per interquintile rangeAnalysis comparing Q5 vs. Q1
RR (95% CI), fixed effectRR (95% CI), random effectI2 (%)RR (95% CI), fixed effectRR (95% CI), random effectI2 (%)
ALA
 Phospholipids1314,6330.96 (0.91, 1.02)0.99 (0.88, 1.11)55.30.90 (0.80, 1.02)0.94 (0.80, 1.12)31.2
 Total plasma/serum71,9671.03 (0.93, 1.14)1.06 (0.90, 1.25)52.81.07 (0.92, 1.24)1.07 (0.92, 1.24)0.0
 Cholesterol esters35030.91 (0.72, 1.16)0.91 (0.72, 1.16)0.00.81 (0.60, 1.10)0.81 (0.60, 1.10)0.0
 Triglycerides11010.92 (0.46, 1.83)0.92 (0.46, 1.83)0.80 (0.36, 1.75)0.80 (0.36, 1.75)
 Adipose tissue1990.65 (0.36, 1.16)0.65 (0.36, 1.16)0.52 (0.24, 1.10)0.52 (0.24, 1.10)
 Overall2016,6930.97 (0.92, 1.02)0.98 (0.90, 1.08)48.60.94 (0.85, 1.03)0.96 (0.87, 1.07)16.7
EPA
 Phospholipids1314,6330.92 (0.86, 0.97)0.94 (0.83, 1.07)50.20.82 (0.73, 0.92)0.81 (0.72, 0.92)0.0
 Total plasma/serum71,9670.93 (0.86, 1.00)0.90 (0.79, 1.02)42.80.81 (0.70, 0.94)0.81 (0.64, 1.03)54.4
 Cholesterol esters35030.91 (0.72, 1.17)0.92 (0.72, 1.17)0.00.90 (0.66, 1.25)0.90 (0.66, 1.25)0.0
 Triglycerides11011.05 (0.79, 1.39)1.05 (0.79, 1.39)0.92 (0.49, 1.72)0.92 (0.49, 1.72)
 Adipose tissue1991.12 (0.59, 2.13)1.12 (0.59, 2.13)0.91 (0.44, 1.89)0.91 (0.44, 1.89)
 Overall2016,6930.92 (0.87, 0.96)0.92 (0.85, 0.996)39.00.82 (0.74, 0.89)0.81 (0.74, 0.89)0.0
DPA
 Phospholipids1314,6330.78 (0.71, 0.85)0.83 (0.72, 0.94)32.10.78 (0.70, 0.87)0.78 (0.70, 0.87)0.0
 Total plasma/serum61,3160.93 (0.84, 1.04)0.80 (0.62, 1.03)75.90.73 (0.61, 0.88)0.73 (0.60, 0.89)9.1
 Triglycerides11010.62 (0.31, 1.24)0.62 (0.31, 1.24)0.54 (0.27, 1.05)0.54 (0.27, 1.05)
 Adipose tissue1991.69 (1.03, 2.77)1.69 (1.03, 2.77)1.87 (0.92, 3.79)1.87 (0.92, 3.79)
 Overall1815,7930.79 (0.73, 0.85)0.83 (0.74, 0.94)44.50.77 (0.70, 0.85)0.77 (0.70, 0.85)0.0
DHA
 Phospholipids1314,6330.80 (0.72, 0.89)0.80 (0.72, 0.89)0.00.76 (0.66, 0.87)0.76 (0.66, 0.88)3.6
 Total plasma/serum71,9670.81 (0.72, 0.91)0.81 (0.70, 0.93)17.30.76 (0.65, 0.88)0.76 (0.65, 0.88)0.0
 Cholesterol esters35030.93 (0.73, 1.17)0.93 (0.73, 1.17)0.00.85 (0.64, 1.15)0.85 (0.64, 1.15)0.0
 Triglycerides11011.00 (0.69, 1.46)1.00 (0.69, 1.46)0.67 (0.37, 1.19)0.67 (0.37, 1.19)
 Adipose tissue1991.53 (0.99, 2.37)1.53 (0.99, 2.37)1.81 (0.89, 3.67)1.81 (0.89, 3.67)
 Overall2016,6930.82 (0.76, 0.89)0.83 (0.75, 0.92)27.80.77 (0.70, 0.85)0.78 (0.70, 0.88)14.7
EPA + DPA + DHA§
 Phospholipids1314,6330.78 (0.70, 0.87)0.78 (0.70, 0.87)0.00.71 (0.62, 0.80)0.71 (0.62, 0.81)0.0
 Total plasma/serum71,9670.84 (0.75, 0.94)0.83 (0.71, 0.97)31.10.77 (0.66, 0.89)0.77 (0.66, 0.91)7.4
 Cholesterol esters35030.90 (0.71, 1.16)0.90 (0.71, 1.16)0.00.87 (0.64, 1.20)0.87 (0.64, 1.20)0.0
 Triglycerides11010.98 (0.66, 1.48)0.98 (0.66, 1.48)0.68 (0.36, 1.26)0.68 (0.36, 1.26)
 Adipose tissue1991.55 (0.96, 2.48)1.55 (0.96, 2.48)2.11 (1.01, 4.41)2.11 (1.01, 4.41)
 Overall2016,6930.81 (0.75, 0.88)0.82 (0.75, 0.90)19.30.74 (0.67, 0.82)0.77 (0.68, 0.86)20.0
  • Q, quintile. Multiple lipid fractions were available for some studies, but only one lipid fraction was used for the overall analysis.

  • Effect estimates were pooled with use of inverse variance–weighted fixed-effects or random-effects meta-analysis.

  • § For Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men-50 (ULSAM-50) and Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort study (CCCC), DPA measurements were not available. The risk estimates for EPA + DHA were included in this pooled result.