Table 2

Relationships between prenatal exposures and daily EI in children

ModelGDM vs. unexposedPrepregnancy BMI
β (SE)*P valueβ (SE)*P value
Model 0141.65 (61.23)0.0225.04 (20.84)0.809
Model 1176.89 (62.38)0.00510.55 (21.21)0.62
Model 2175.56 (63.00)0.0063.84 (20.89)0.854
Model 3165.13 (63.89)0.0112.52 (20.98)0.905
  • Model 0, unadjusted; model 1, adjusted for child’s age and sex, maternal education, and maternal race/ethnicity; model 2, model 1 + maternal other exposure (prepregnancy BMI for GDM or GDM status for prepregnancy BMI); model 3, model 2 + child’s physical activity level. Boldface indicates significance at P < 0.05.

  • * Regression coefficient (SE) from linear regression models. For GDM-related results, a positive β means greater daily EI in the GDM group than in the unexposed group, whereas a negative β means the opposite data pattern. For prepregnancy BMI-related results, a positive β means a positive relationship between prepregnancy BMI and daily EI, whereas a negative β means a negative relationship.