Table 3

Stratified analysis of n-3 fatty acid biomarkers by prespecified sources of heterogeneity

ALAEPADPADHAEPA + DPA + DHA
RR (95% CI)PhetRR (95% CI)PhetRR (95% CI)PhetRR (95% CI)PhetRR (95% CI)Phet
Overall estimate0.97 (0.92, 1.02)0.92 (0.87, 0.96)0.79 (0.73, 0.85)0.82 (0.76, 0.89)0.81 (0.75, 0.88)
Global region0.350.0090.050.680.69
 North America1.04 (0.94, 1.16)1.07 (0.96, 1.21)0.86 (0.75, 0.99)0.87 (0.75, 1.00)0.86 (0.74, 0.99)
 Europe0.93 (0.88, 1.00)0.88 (0.82, 0.93)0.76 (0.69, 0.84)0.80 (0.71, 0.89)0.77 (0.69, 0.87)
 Asia0.98 (0.86, 1.13)0.94 (0.85, 1.03)0.65 (0.44, 0.96)0.83 (0.69, 1.00)0.85 (0.72, 1.00)
 Australia1.03 (0.80, 1.33)0.73 (0.53, 0.998)1.16 (0.80, 1.67)0.90 (0.66, 1.24)0.83 (0.61, 1.14)
Age, years0.270.820.860.570.81
 <600.94 (0.88, 1.02)0.92 (0.84, 0.997)0.78 (0.69, 0.88)0.78 (0.69, 0.88)0.79 (0.70, 0.89)
 ≥601.00 (0.93, 1.09)0.93 (0.87, 0.99)0.79 (0.72, 0.88)0.81 (0.74, 0.90)0.80 (0.73, 0.88)
Sex0.960.550.780.110.11
 Male0.98 (0.92, 1.05)0.90 (0.84, 0.96)0.77 (0.69, 0.87)0.86 (0.77, 0.95)0.85 (0.77, 0.93)
 Female0.98 (0.88, 1.09)0.93 (0.86, 0.99)0.79 (0.71, 0.88)0.75 (0.67, 0.85)0.75 (0.67, 0.84)
Race/ethnicity0.620.040.290.600.32
 White0.98 (0.92, 1.03)0.88 (0.83, 0.93)0.77 (0.71, 0.84)0.83 (0.76, 0.91)0.82 (0.75, 0.89)
 Black0.97 (0.65, 1.44)1.12 (0.91, 1.38)1.06 (0.77, 1.47)0.97 (0.65, 1.44)0.98 (0.68, 1.42)
 East Asian0.97 (0.85, 1.10)0.95 (0.87, 1.04)0.73 (0.52, 1.02)0.82 (0.68, 0.99)0.85 (0.72, 0.996)
 Hispanic0.68 (0.40, 1.15)0.53 (0.26, 1.07)0.78 (0.43, 1.44)0.44 (0.13, 1.44)0.39 (0.12, 1.23)
BMI, kg/m20.170.250.490.030.07
 <300.95 (0.88, 1.01)0.91 (0.87, 0.96)0.79 (0.72, 0.87)0.86 (0.78, 0.94)0.84 (0.77, 0.91)
 ≥301.03 (0.93, 1.14)0.85 (0.77, 0.94)0.75 (0.64, 0.87)0.70 (0.59, 0.82)0.71 (0.60, 0.83)
LA (% of fatty acids)0.340.050.560.420.32
 <Median0.95 (0.89, 1.02)0.89 (0.85, 0.94)0.79 (0.72, 0.87)0.83 (0.75, 0.91)0.83 (0.75, 0.90)
 ≥Median1.01 (0.92, 1.10)1.00 (0.91, 1.10)0.75 (0.65, 0.87)0.77 (0.68, 0.88)0.76 (0.66, 0.87)
Triglycerides, mg/dL0.550.660.980.770.33
 <1500.99 (0.92, 1.07)0.94 (0.89, 0.999)0.75 (0.67, 0.84)0.83 (0.75, 0.92)0.84 (0.77, 0.93)
 ≥1500.95 (0.87, 1.05)0.92 (0.85, 0.997)0.75 (0.66, 0.86)0.81 (0.71, 0.93)0.78 (0.68, 0.89)
  • Multiple lipid fractions were available for some studies, but only one lipid fraction was used for the overall analysis. Effect estimates were pooled with use of inverse variance–weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis. Phet, Pheterogeneity.