Table 3

Final multivariable Cox models for any CVD and MACE as a function of fixed and time-dependent covariates during DCCT/EDIC

HR (95% CI)z test valueP
Any CVD*
 Mean pulse rate (per 10 bpm)1.39 (1.11, 1.74)2.830.0050
 Mean heart rate (per 10 bpm)1.09 (1.03, 1.15)2.900.0038
MACE
 Mean pulse rate (per 10 bpm)1.60 (1.16, 2.20)2.850.0050
 Mean heart rate (per 10 bpm)1.13 (1.05, 1.21)3.170.0015
  • HRs and P values are from four separate multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models with fixed baseline and time-dependent (current and updated mean) covariates measured during DCCT and EDIC. Models using the mean pulse rate were published in 2016 (12). The current analysis used heart rate measured during the ECGs and replicated the models with the same list of covariates as was used for the previous DCCT/EDIC study.

  • * Any CVD models are adjusted for DCCT baseline age, mean HbA1c, mean systolic blood pressure, current triglycerides, baseline duration of diabetes, current use of ACE inhibitors, baseline family history of MI, and mean LDL cholesterol.

  • MACE models are adjusted for DCCT baseline age, mean HbA1c, current smoking, current triglycerides, mean systolic blood pressure, current LDL cholesterol, baseline duration of diabetes, and current use of ACE inhibitors.