Table 2

Association of DCCT treatment group and other CVD risk factors with heart rate during EDIC

Effect of covariate on heart rateIntensive vs. conventional adjusted for covariate
β ± SEt statisticPβ ± SEt statisticP
Treatment effect on heart rate
 Unadjusted−1.76 ± 0.48−3.660.0003
 Minimally adjusted−1.77 ± 0.47−3.770.0002
Time-dependent covariates
 Current cigarette smoker (yes vs. no)0.70 ± 0.233.090.0021−1.78 ± 0.47−3.790.0002
 BMI (per kg/m2)0.23 ± 0.029.90<0.0001−1.94 ± 1.47−4.17<0.0001
 Blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)
  Systolic0.58 ± 0.0413.98<0.0001−1.74 ± 0.46−3.760.0002
  Diastolic0.57 ± 0.069.12<0.0001−1.79 ± 0.47−3.840.0001
 Lipids (per 10 mg/dL)
  Total cholesterol0.29 ± 0.0214.64<0.0001−1.66 ± 0.47−3.550.0004
  Triglycerides0.15 ± 0.0112.21<0.0001−1.63 ± 0.47−3.510.0005
 Microvascular complications (yes vs. no)
  Sustained AER ≥30 mg/24 h2.55 ± 0.2510.12<0.0001−1.50 ± 0.47−3.190.0014
  Estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2−1.55 ± 0.36−4.25<0.0001−1.81 ± 0.47−3.830.0001
  Any proliferative diabetic retinopathy2.45 ± 0.376.61<0.0001−1.22 ± 0.48−2.530.0114
 Medication use (yes vs. no)
  ACE inhibitor/ARB use−0.18 ± 0.14−1.260.2079−1.78 ± 0.47−3.770.0002
  β-Blocker use−5.55 ± 0.25−21.95<0.0001−1.88 ± 0.48−3.93<0.0001
  Calcium channel blocker use−0.53 ± 0.26−2.030.0430−1.77 ± 0.47−3.760.0002
 Glycemic control (per 10% increase)
  EDIC current HbA1c0.44 ± 0.049.82<0.0001−1.76 ± 0.46−3.820.0001
  EDIC mean HbA1c*1.69 ± 0.0919.00<0.0001−1.45 ± 0.44−3.300.0010
  DCCT/EDIC mean HbA1c*2.24 ± 0.1022.13<0.00010.65 ± 0.451.460.1435
  • Data are β estimates ± SE, t statistics, and P values from separate linear mixed models unadjusted; minimally adjusted for primary prevention vs. secondary intervention cohort, sex, race, and DCCT closeout age and duration of diabetes; and fully adjusted separately for each risk factor as a time-dependent covariate spanning EDIC years 1–22. The signed t statistic corresponds to the magnitude and directionality of the association. HbA1c values were log transformed for analyses. For each measurement of HbA1c, the change in heart rate is presented per 10% increase in HbA1c and calculated as log(1.1β). ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; GFR, glomerular filtration rate.

  • * The EDIC mean HbA1c reflects the cumulative glycemic exposure from EDIC year 1 to 22. The time-weighted HbA1c arithmetic mean was calculated by weighting of each value by the time interval since the last measurement.