Table 1

Participant characteristics

CharacteristicOverall (N = 159)GDM* (n = 87)Unexposed (n = 72)P value**
Child
 Age (years)8.5 ± 0.968.4 ± 0.848.7 ± 1.050.02
 Sex0.88
  Female96 (60.4)53 (60.9)43 (59.7)
  Male63 (39.6)34 (39.1)29 (40.3)
 Tanner staging0.86
  1144 (90.6)80 (92)64 (88.9)
  210 (6.3)5 (5.7)5 (6.9)
  34 (2.5)2 (2.3)2 (2.8)
  41 (0.6)0 (0.0)1 (1.4)
 BMI (kg/m2)19.1 ± 4.1919.5 ± 4.7118.5 ± 3.400.13
 BMI z-score0.8 ± 1.100.9 ± 1.150.7 ± 1.030.21
 Total body fat (%)***25.4 ± 8.7326.5 ± 9.4924.2 ± 7.570.11
 Waist circumference (cm)64.9 ± 11.1566.0 ± 12.1563.6 ± 9.720.18
 Hip circumference (cm)73.9 ± 9.7274.2 ± 10.5073.5 ± 8.750.65
 Height (cm)132.3 ± 8.72131.5 ± 8.04133.3 ± 9.440.21
 WHR0.87 ± 0.060.89 ± 0.060.86 ± 0.050.01
 WtHR0.49 ± 0.070.50 ± 0.080.48 ± 0.060.03
 EI (kcal/day)1,741.4 ± 386.151,664.2 ± 367.231,805.9 ± 391.830.02
 MVPA (min/day)142.03 ± 97.15136.23 ± 98.21146.69 ± 96.610.31
 OFC food cue reactivity (% signal change)0.024 ± 0.15–0.004 ± 0.150.05 ± 0.150.07
Maternal
 Prepregnancy BMI group0.85
  Normal weight (<25 kg/m2)39 (24.5)20 (23.0)19 (26.4)
  Overweight (≥25 and <30 kg/m2)48 (30.2)26 (29.9)22 (30.6)
  Obese (≥30 kg/m2)72 (45.3)41 (47.1)31 (43.1)
 Race/ethnicity0.24
  Hispanic92 (57.9)55 (63.2)37 (51.4)
  Non-Hispanic Black21 (13.2)9 (10.3)12 (16.7)
  Non-Hispanic White32 (20.1)14 (16.1)18 (25.0)
  Other14 (8.8)9 (10.3)5 (6.9)
 Income group at birth ($)0.56
  <30,00025 (15.7)14 (16.1)11 (15.3)
  30,000–50,00048 (30.2)24 (27.6)24 (33.3)
  50,000–70,00046 (28.9)29 (33.3)17 (23.6)
  70,000–90,00022 (13.8)12 (13.8)10 (13.9)
  ≥90,00016 (10.1)8 (9.2)8 (11.1)
  Missing2 (1.3)0 (0.0)2 (2.8)
 Education0.01
  High school or less35 (22.0)27 (31.0)8 (11.1)
  Some college50 (31.4)26 (29.9)24 (33.3)
  College and postgraduate72 (45.3)34 (39.1)38 (52.8)
  Unknown2 (1.3)0 (0.0)2 (2.8)
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%). Boldface indicates significance at P < 0.05.

  • * Among the 87 GDM-exposed children, 29 were diagnosed ≤26 weeks and 58 diagnosed >26 weeks.

  • ** Categorical variables by χ2 or Fisher exact test, continuous variables by t test.

  • *** One child is missing %BF.