Table 1

Baseline characteristics of studies in the pooled analysis of n-3 fatty acid biomarkers with 65,147 participants and 16,693 incident cases of T2D

StudyCountryStudy designBaseline yearTotal N/n diabetes casesMaximum follow-up, yearsAge, yearsWomen, %BMI, kg/m2Biomarker compartmentFatty acids assessed, n
AGES-RIcelandProspective cohort2002–2006753/287.875.5 (5.2)59.527.0 (4.0)Plasma phospholipids41
AOCThe NetherlandsProspective cohort2002–2006779/384.868.9 (5.6)20.827.3 (3.6)Plasma phospholipids38
ARICU.S.Prospective cohort1987–19893,273/5129.054.4 (5.9)45.526.0 (4.6)Plasma phospholipids29
CCCCTaiwanProspective cohort1992–19951,443/65110.460.1 (10.1)43.223.1 (3.3)Total plasma29
CHSU.S.Prospective cohort1992–19933,007/29118.075.1 (5.3)59.826.4 (4.6)Plasma phospholipids42
EPIC-InterAct8 European countriesProspective case-cohort1993–199727,296/12,13217.552.3 (9.2)62.326.0 (4.2)Plasma phospholipids37
FDPSFinlandProspective cohort1993–1998396/16116.055.5 (7.2)67.931.1 (4.7)Total serum30
FHSU.S.Prospective cohort2005–20081,872/959.064.5 (8.3)57.527.7 (5.0)Erythrocyte phospholipids33
HisayamaJapanProspective cohort2002–20032,172/2227.058.5 (10.5)60.023.1 (3.2)Total serum24
HPFSU.S.Prospective cohort19941,491/10820.264.5 (8.6)0.025.8 (3.2)Total plasma, erythrocyte phospholipids37
KIHDFinlandProspective cohort1984–1989 for men, 1998–2001 for women3,389/59526.855.5 (7.1)29.527.1 (3.9)Total serum14
MCCSAustraliaProspective case-cohort1990–19944,034/3359.955.0 (8.6)55.526.7 (4.3)Plasma phospholipids53
MESAU.S.Prospective cohort2000–20022,099/28511.261.0 (12.0)54.727.6 (5.4)Plasma phospholipids27
METSIMFinlandProspective cohort2006–20101,302/1017.955.0 (5.6)0.026.4 (3.5)Plasma phospholipids, erythrocyte phospholipids, cholesterol esters, triglycerides22
NHSU.S.Prospective cohort19901,446/14924.860.4 (6.4)100.025.3 (4.4)Total plasma, erythrocyte phospholipids37
PIVUSSwedenProspective cohort2001–2004872/6910.970.2 (0.2)51.126.8 (4.1)Plasma phospholipids, cholesterol ester16
3CFranceProspective cohort1999–20001,218/8313.074.4 (4.8)61.826.0 (4.0)Total plasma35
ULSAM-50SwedenProspective cohort1970–19731,899/24942.349.7 (0.6)0.025.0 (3.2)Cholesterol ester17
ULSAM-70SwedenProspective cohort1991–1995738/9921.571.0 (0.6)0.026.2 (3.2)Adipose tissue17
WHIMSU.S.Prospective cohort19955,668/49014.170.1 (3.8)100.028.1 (5.5)Erythrocyte phospholipids22
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Studies with measurements in multiple lipid compartments included the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study, Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), and Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). AOC, Alpha Omega Cohort; CCCC, Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort study; CHS, Cardiovascular Health Study; Hisayama, Hisayama Study; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; KIHD, Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study; MESA, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; METSIM, Metabolic Syndrome in Men Study; NHS, Nurses’ Health Study; PIVUS, Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors.