Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of DCCT/EDIC participants at DCCT closeout by DCCT treatment group

Intensive (N = 698)Conventional (N = 704)P*
Cohort (% primary prevention)341 (49)364 (52)0.28
Sex (% female)343 (49)326 (46)0.28
Race (% White)673 (96)678 (96)0.91
Age (years)33.7 ± 7.033.1 ± 7.00.10
Duration of diabetes (years)12.3 ± 4.911.9 ± 4.80.10
Current cigarette smoker160 (23)158 (23)0.81
Physical activity
 Light259 (37)226 (32)0.19
 Mild353 (51)391 (56)
 Moderate37 (5)33 (5)
 Strenuous44 (6)49 (7)
BMI (kg/m2)26.6 ± 4.325.1 ± 3.1<0.0001
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic116.6 ± 11.5116.5 ± 11.90.74
 Diastolic74.9 ± 8.774.3 ± 8.90.27
Lipids (mg/dL)
 Total cholesterol180.5 ± 30.8184.1 ± 37.50.13
 Triglycerides84.4 ± 52.787.9 ± 51.10.05
 HDL cholesterol51.0 ± 12.951.8 ± 13.00.24
 LDL cholesterol112.6 ± 27.3114.8 ± 31.90.24
Microvascular complications
 Sustained AER ≥30 mg/24 h53 (8)99 (14)<0.0001
 Proliferative diabetic retinopathy12 (2)40 (6)<0.0001
 CAN52 (8)78 (11)0.02
Glycemic control: HbA1c (%)
 DCCT current HbA1c7.4 ± 1.29.1 ± 1.6<0.0001
 DCCT mean HbA1c7.2 ± 0.99.1 ± 1.3<0.0001
Glycemic control (mmol/mol)
 DCCT current HbA1c57.5 ± 12.776.3 ± 17.1<0.0001
 DCCT mean HbA1c55.6 ± 10.175.8 ± 13.9<0.0001
Heart rate (bpm)68.9 ± 11.570.8 ± 11.70.0029
  • Data are means ± SD or N (%).

  • * Treatment group comparisons were made with use of the Wilcoxon rank sum test for quantitative measurements or the χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • The DCCT mean HbA1c reflects the cumulative glycemic exposure from DCCT baseline up to and including the HbA1c at DCCT closeout.

  • Heart rate derived from DCCT closeout ECG.