Table 3

Mean differences in adjusted 20-year change in echocardiographic measures of LV structure and function among women with GDM compared with women without GDM

Model 1Model 2Model 3
β (95% CI)PSER2β (95% CI)PSER2β (95% CI)PSER2
LV structure
 LVM (g)14.79 (3.32, 26.26)0.0125.840.11214.67 (2.74, 26.59)0.0166.070.11215.53 (4.24, 26.82)0.0075.750.196
 LVM index (g/m2)8.27 (2.40, 14.14)0.0062.990.0838.30 (2.20, 14.40)0.0083.110.0838.19 (2.31, 14.06)0.0062.990.136
 LVM/volume ratio0.13 (−0.11, 0.37)0.2790.120.0990.12 (−0.14, 0.38)0.3750.130.0990.08 (−0.18, 0.34)0.5310.130.128
 LVESVI (mL/m2)0.07 (−3.65, 3.78)0.9711.890.0980.14 (−3.85, 4.12)0.9442.020.098−0.03 (−3.93, 3.87)0.9871.980.087
 RWT0.018 (−0.005, 0.041)0.1180.010.0790.012 (−0.011, 0.036)0.3110.010.0790.012 (−0.011, 0.036)0.3070.010.101
LV systolic function
 Stroke volume (mL)−0.86 (−10.43, 8.71)0.8604.860.0980.09 (−10.03, 10.21)0.9865.140.100−0.15 (−10.38, 10.08)0.9775.190.103
 Cardiac output (L/min)−0.13 (−0.94, 0.69)0.7610.410.082−0.17 (−1.04, 0.71)0.7050.440.082−0.22 (−1.10, 0.67)0.6290.450.087
 LVEF (%)−2.92 (−7.11, 1.26)0.1702.130.053−3.14 (−7.57, 1.30)0.1652.250.053−2.70 (−7.10, 1.70)0.2282.230.059
LV diastolic function
 E/A ratio−0.026 (−0.128, 0.077)0.6240.050.157−0.017 (−0.122, 0.089)0.7580.050.157−0.024 (−0.128, 0.081)0.6580.050.181
  • Model 1, adjusted for year 5 covariates (age, race, education, center, BMI, physical activity, parity, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, marijuana, alcohol intake, family history of CHD, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol); Model 2, Model 1 plus diabetes during follow-up; Model 3, Model 2 plus change in weight and systolic blood pressure during follow-up.