Table 4

HRs (95% CI) of T2D for change in the consumption of potato foods in NHS, NHSII, and HPFS

Change in potato consumption, servings/weekEvery 3 servings/weekP value for trend
Decreased ≥4.0Decreased 1.0–3.9No change (±0.9)Increased 1.0–3.9Increased ≥4.0
Total potato foods
 NHS (cases/person-years)191/28,461971/187,3212,703/541,523851/156,280124/21,717
  Model 1*1.12 (0.94–1.33)0.90 (0.83–0.97)1.001.14 (1.05–1.23)1.21 (1.01–1.45)1.11 (1.05–1.17)0.0002
  Model 21.12 (0.94–1.33)0.92 (0.85–1.00)1.001.03 (0.96–1.12)1.00 (0.84–1.20)1.03 (0.97–1.09)0.37
  Model 31.09 (0.92–1.30)0.91 (0.84–0.99)1.001.02 (0.95–1.11)0.98 (0.82–1.18)1.03 (0.97–1.09)0.36
 NHSII (cases/person-years)163/33,584670/205,1141,601/566,999629/175,691140/28,291
  Model 1*1.06 (0.87–1.29)0.89 (0.80–0.98)1.001.37 (1.24–1.50)1.94 (1.63–2.31)1.30 (1.23–1.39)<0.0001
  Model 21.08 (0.89–1.31)0.93 (0.84–1.02)1.001.15 (1.05–1.26)1.25 (1.04–1.49)1.10 (1.04–1.18)0.002
  Model 31.02 (0.84–1.24)0.92 (0.83–1.02)1.001.07 (0.97–1.17)1.12 (0.93–1.34)1.07 (1.00–1.13)0.05
 HPFS (cases/person-years)90/19,274458/97,6141,079/253,156419/88,724101/16,963
  Model 1*1.11 (0.87–1.42)1.06 (0.94–1.19)1.001.10 (0.98–1.23)1.41 (1.15–1.72)1.07 (0.99–1.15)0.07
  Model 21.07 (0.84–1.37)1.08 (0.96–1.22)1.001.04 (0.92–1.16)1.19 (0.97–1.47)1.01 (0.94–1.09)0.71
  Model 31.00 (0.78–1.28)1.06 (0.94–1.19)1.001.03 (0.92–1.15)1.15 (0.93–1.42)1.02 (0.95–1.10)0.59
 Pooled§1.05 (0.93–1.17)0.94 (0.89–1.00)1.001.04 (0.98–1.10)1.08 (0.96–1.20)1.04 (1.00–1.08)0.04
Decreased ≥1.0Decreased 0.5–0.9No change (±0.4)Increased 0.5–0.9Increased ≥1.0Every 1 serving/week
Baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes
 NHS (cases/person-years)1,120/210,194390/72,2672,198/426,228227/54,448894/168,856
  Model 30.92 (0.85–1.00)1.06 (0.95–1.20)1.000.89 (0.76–1.04)1.00 (0.92–1.08)1.02 (0.97–1.07)0.43
 NHSII (cases/person-years)729/210,285271/104,1531,363/442,467252/83,115579/166,915
  Model 30.92 (0.83–1.02)0.93 (0.81–1.07)1.001.14 (0.97–1.34)1.04 (0.94–1.15)1.07 (1.01–1.14)0.03
 HPFS (cases/person-years)465/104,335166/34,727919/212,317145/29,960443/92,537
  Model 31.01 (0.89–1.15)1.06 (0.89–1.27)1.001.09 (0.88–1.35)1.04 (0.92–1.18)1.01 (0.93–1.09)0.84
 Pooled§0.94 (0.89–0.99)1.02 (0.94–1.10)1.001.02 (0.93–1.13)1.02 (0.96–1.08)1.03 (1.00–1.07)0.06
French fries
 NHS (cases/person-years)196/31,887820/154,7522,886/596,764706/118,407199/27,958
  Model 30.90 (0.75–1.08)0.92 (0.84–1.00)1.001.09 (1.00–1.19)1.03 (0.88–1.19)1.12 (1.03–1.21)0.007
 NHSII (cases/person-years)330/77,569486/179,8871,468/511,349540/160,311363/77,017
  Model 30.89 (0.76–1.04)0.93 (0.84–1.04)1.001.08 (0.98–1.20)1.09 (0.96–1.23)1.12 (1.04–1.20)0.003
 HPFS (cases/person-years)206/36,105359/78,1891,022/252,608343/70,415190/33,501
  Model 31.06 (0.87–1.30)1.05 (0.92–1.19)1.001.13 (0.99–1.28)1.11 (0.95–1.31)1.05 (0.95–1.16)0.34
Pooled§0.93 (0.84–1.03)0.95 (0.89–1.01)1.001.09 (1.03–1.16)1.07 (0.99–1.17)1.10 (1.05–1.15)<0.0001
  • *Model 1 was adjusted for age (years).

  • †Model 2 was adjusted for age (years); ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, or Asian); smoking status (never-never, current-past, never/past-current, past-past, or current-current smoker); a family history of diabetes (yes or no); baseline values of multivitamin use (yes or no); postmenopausal status and hormone use (premenopause, postmenopause [never, past, or current postmenopausal hormone use], or missing); oral contraceptive use (never, past, current, or missing, for NHS II); potato food intake; and initial values and changes of alcohol intake (for initial value: 0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–14.9, ≥15.0 g/day, or missing [for women] and 0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–29.9, ≥30.0 g/day, or missing [for men]; for change value: fifths or missing); physical activity (for initial value: <3, 3.0–8.9, 9.0–17.9, 18.0–26.9, ≥27.0 metabolic equivalents of task-hours/week, or missing; for change value: fifths or missing); total energy intake (kilocalories/day for initial value, fifths for change value); and modified aHEI score (fifths for both initial and change values).

  • ‡Model 3 was adjusted for the variables in model 2 plus initial BMI (<23, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, 27.0–28.9, 29.0–30.9, 31.0–32.9, 33.0–34.9, and ≥35.0 kg/m2, or missing).

  • §Results from all cohorts were pooled using a fixed-effects meta-analysis.