Table 1

Characteristics at years 5 and 25 among women in whom GDM later developed or did not during follow-up

Year 5Year 25
GDM (n = 64)No GDM (n = 545)P valueGDM (n = 64)No GDM (n = 545)P value
Age, years28.5 (3.9)28.8 (3.5)0.59948.6 (3.8)48.9 (3.6)0.522
Race0.3500.350
 White51.658.251.658.2
 Black48.441.848.441.8
High school education or less25.019.60.32414.115.00.835
Parity0.8960.781
 None57.858.70.00.0
 One28.124.420.324.2
 Two9.411.445.343.7
 Three or more4.75.534.432.1
Current oral contraceptive use31.339.80.22329.720.40.106
Current cigarette use28.121.10.20314.113.80.947
Current marijuana use15.611.90.4207.88.60.826
Current alcohol use84.485.10.85470.382.40.027
Heart rate, bpm67.0 (9.0)67.7 (9.9)0.61867.2 (10.9)66.5 (10.4)0.641
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg103.3 (10.0)103.0 (9.5)0.802114.1 (13.1)114.2 (14.9)0.966
Blood pressure medication use1.60.40.28423.418.30.325
Total cholesterol, mg/dL176.1 (37.5)177.8 (30.5)0.731191.7 (43.9)194.3 (34.6)0.650
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL55.9 (13.3)59.0 (13.8)0.09961.0 (21.5)64.2 (19.4)0.221
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL105.3 (34.8)105.4 (28.6)0.981109.4 (39.0)111.0 (30.4)0.740
Triglycerides, mg/dL*72.3 (41.3)64.8 (33.7)0.215106.3 (52.5)96.3 (66.7)0.074
Lipid-lowering medication use0.00.014.19.20.211
Body surface area1.7 (0.2)1.7 (0.2)0.6551.9 (0.2)1.9 (0.2)0.963
BMI, kg/m226.0 (6.8)24.7 (5.7)0.17130.0 (7.3)29.3 (7.6)0.471
Waist circumference, cm77.5 (14.5)75.2 (11.3)0.22790.6 (16.1)88.3 (15.6)0.270
Physical activity, exercise units290 (242)318 (258)0.421303.2 (275)299.8 (254)0.924
High sensitive C-reactive protein, μg/mL3.5 (4.3)3.5 (7.2)0.9803.5 (4.7)3.1 (5.0)0.054
Insulin, μU/mL8.5 (3.8)8.0 (3.3)0.25013.6 (32.3)9.7 (7.1)0.341
Fasting glucose, mg/dL81.3 (9.6)79.0 (7.4)0.063104.6 (34.8)92.7 (20.3)0.009
2-h oral glucose, mg/dL§101.1 (21.6)97.5 (36.9)0.455132.3 (49.0)104.2 (40.2)0.001
Glycated hemoglobin, % (mmol/mol)6.0 (42)5.5 (37)0.001
Diabetes0.00.029.76.10.001
Family history of diabetes26.614.10.01660.340.40.003
Family history of CHD12.515.20.71131.731.40.960
  • Values are reported as the mean (SD) for continuous variables and % for categorical variables, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *The P value from logged analyses.

  • †Values measured at year 7 were substituted for year 5.

  • ‡Values measured at year 0 were substituted for year 5.

  • §First measured at CARDIA study year 10.