Table 2

Echocardiography measures (unadjusted) among women by GDM status at year 25 and 20-year change

Year 2520-year change
GDM (n = 64)No GDM (n = 545)P valueGDM (n = 64)No GDM (n = 545)P value
LV structure
 LVM (g)154.7 (54.0)143.1 (40.8)0.10836.4 (49.3)18.8 (40.7)0.010
 LVM index (g/m2)82.6 (22.5)77.2 (18.9)0.03914.5 (23.2)4.9 (24.7)0.001
 LVM/volume ratio1.6 (0.6)1.5 (0.4)0.2150.5 (0.6)0.3 (0.5)0.071
 LVESVI (mL/m2)20.0 (7.2)19.0 (6.6)0.267−4.4 (6.1)−4.0 (7.8)0.820
 RWT0.35 (0.08)0.34 (0.07)0.3550.03 (0.1)0.01 (0.1)0.037
LV systolic function
 Stroke volume (mL)63.3 (15.8)60.7 (14.1)0.186−9.2 (19.8)−8.9 (20.4)0.960
 Cardiac output (L/min)4.3 (1.3)4.0 (1.0)0.126−0.6 (1.5)−0.7 (1.7)0.813
 LVEF (%)62.3 (7.6)61.6 (6.9)0.465−3.3 (9.6)−1.8 (8.7)0.435
LV diastolic function
 E/A ratio1.29 (0.4)1.34 (0.4)0.3891.33 (0.4)1.28 (0.4)0.300
  • Values are reported as the mean (SD), unless otherwise indicated.