Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

Number (%) of participantsP
NutsHalf doseMuffins
n403839
Age (years)*63 (9)62 (8)61 (10)0.61
Sex
 Male26 (65)26 (68)26 (67)0.97
 Female14 (35)12 (32)13 (33)
Race/ethnicity
 European23 (58)25 (66)18 (46)0.83
 Indian10 (25)8 (21)13 (33)
 Far Eastern4 (10)3 (8)3 (8)
 African3 (8)2 (5)3 (8)
 Hispanic0 (0)0 (0)1 (3)
 Native American0 (0)0 (0)1 (3)
Weight (kg)*80 (15)86 (16)83 (15)0.20
BMI (kg/m2)*29 (5)30 (5)29 (4)0.37
Current smokers2 (5)4 (11)3 (8)0.57
HbA1c (%)
 <7.020 (50)20 (53)22 (56)0.84
 ≥7.020 (50)18 (47)17 (44)
Duration of diabetes (years)*7 (6)8 (6)8 (6)0.57
Medication use
 Hypoglycemic medications40 (100)38 (100)39 (100)1.00
 Thiazolidinedione12 (30)11 (29)11 (28)1.00
 Biguanide35 (88)36 (95)35 (90)0.62
 Sulfonylurea14 (35)13 (34)17 (44)0.64
 Meglitinides (nonsulfonylurea)2 (5)3 (8)2 (5)0.79
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1.00
 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor0 (0)0 (0)1 (3)0.66
 Cholesterol-lowering medications23 (58)a31 (82)b30 (77)ab0.046
 Blood pressure medications23 (58)29 (76)28 (72)0.12
  • Data are n (%) or *mean (SD).

  • P value is for overall F test for between-groups differences using the generalized linear model ANOVA.

  • P values for Fisher exact test where appropriate were calculated separately for distribution of each medication, since participants were from multiple nationalities or on multiple medications. A difference in superscript letters signifies a significant difference in percentage changes using the Q statistic.