Table 2

Mean study measurements and significance of treatment differences in the intention-to-treat analysis

Baseline*End point*Treatment difference
Full-nut doseHalf-nut doseMuffinsFull-nut doseHalf-nut doseMuffinsFull-nut dose vs. muffins (P)Full- vs. half-nut dose (P)Half-nut dose vs. muffins (P)
n403839403839
Glucose (mmol/L)7.3 (6.9–7.7)7.4 (6.9–7.8)7.1 (6.7–7.5)7.2 (6.7–7.6)7.4 (6.7–8.1)7.2 (6.7–7.7)0.0790.3040.681
HbA1c (%)7.1 (6.9–7.3)7.1 (6.9–7.3)7.1 (7.0–7.3)6.9 (6.7–7.1)7.0 (6.8–7.3)7.1 (6.9–7.2)0.0010.0040.863
Lipids (mmol/L)
 Total cholesterol4.4 (4.1–4.8)4.0 (3.8–4.2)4.2 (3.9–4.5)4.2 (3.9–4.6)4.0 (3.8–4.3)4.3 (3.9–4.6)<0.0010.0420.203
 LDL cholesterol2.5 (2.1–2.8)2.2 (2.0–2.4)2.3 (2.0–2.5)2.3 (1.9–2.6)2.1 (1.9–2.4)2.3 (2.1–2.6)<0.0010.1230.048
 HDL cholesterol1.2 (1.1–1.2)1.1 (1.0–1.2)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.3)0.4050.3640.995
 Triglycerides1.8 (1.5–2.0)1.6 (1.3–1.8)1.6 (1.4–1.9)1.7 (1.3–2.0)1.6 (1.3–1.9)1.6 (1.4–1.8)0.1580.0640.970
Total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio3.9 (3.6–4.3)3.8 (3.3–4.2)3.8 (3.4–4.2)3.6 (3.3–3.9)3.7 (3.2–4.1)3.7 (3.3–4.1)0.0060.1630.047
 LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio2.2 (1.9–2.5)2.1 (1.8–2.4)2.1 (1.8–2.4)1.9 (1.7–2.2)1.9 (1.7–2.2)2.0 (1.7–2.3)0.0020.1630.013
 ApoA11.5 (1.4–1.5)1.5 (1.4–1.5)1.5 (1.4–1.5)1.5 (1.4–1.5)1.5 (1.4–1.6)1.5 (1.4–1.6)0.260.2490.976
 ApoB0.85 (0.76–0.93)0.76 (0.70–0.82)0.79 (0.72–0.85)0.80 (0.72–0.88)0.75 (0.69–0.81)0.80 (0.73–0.87)<0.0010.1470.012
 ApoB:apoA10.58 (0.52–0.63)0.54 (0.48–0.60)0.55 (0.49–0.62)0.54 (0.49–0.59)0.52 (0.46–0.58)0.55 (0.49–0.61)0.0040.5370.001
Serum CRP (nmol/L)1.6 (1.1–2.1)1.8 (0.9–2.7)1.9 (1.1–2.6)2.2 (1.2–3.2)1.5 (1.1–2.0)2.0 (1.2–2.8)0.6820.1860.042
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic121 (118–125)123 (119–128)125 (121–129)119 (116–123)124 (120–128)124 (120–128)0.0840.0050.274
 Diastolic70 (67–73)71 (69–74)71 (68–75)69 (66–72)72 (70–74)72 (68–75)0.0240.0210.888
  • Data are means (95% CI). n = 117.

  • *Baseline is an average of weeks −1 and 0 and end point is an average of weeks 8, 10, and 12, except for body weight (week 0).

  • †Mean treatment differences (95% CI) were determined and P values were estimated by CONTRAST using average baseline and the difference from week 8, 10, and 12. Significance by Bonferroni, P < 0.0175.