Table 2

Diabetes management and clinical factors

Case subjectsControl subjects
n = 101n = 100P value
Pump useχ59 (58)59 (59)0.99
Total daily insulinχ*Ϯ (units/kg)0.5 (0.4, 0.7)0.5 (0.4, 0.6)0.28
 <0.4020 (23)27 (29)
 0.40 to <0.6041 (47)39 (42)
 ≥0.60 27 (31)27 (29)
Home blood glucose monitoringχϮ (times/day)6 ± 35 ± 20.02
 01 (<1)0 (0)
 1–35 (5)18 (18)
 421 (21)24 (24)
 5–641 (41)31 (31)
 7–920 (20)22 (22)
 ≥1013 (13)5 (5)
HbA1c*ϮΠ, % (mmol/mol)7.8 ± 1.3 (62.1 ± 13.9)7.7 ± 1.1 (60.4 ± 12.0)0.06
 <7.0 (<53)26 (26)28 (28)
 7.0 to <8.0 (53 to <64)31 (31)36 (36)
 8.0 to <9.0 (64 to <75)25 (25)24 (24)
 ≥9.0 (≥75)18 (18)12 (12)
Detectable C-peptide*βΦ19 (19)26 (26)0.25
Glucose*ϮΠβ (mg/dL)161 (106, 221)176 (122, 237)0.35
Abnormal creatinine*Ϧ19 (19)8 (8)0.03
Diabetic ketoacidosis requiring hospitalization in past yearχ*
 ≥1 event7 (7)2 (2)0.17
β-Blocker useϑ40 (40)21 (21)0.006
  • Variables are shown as n (%), mean ± SD, or median (25th, 75th percentile).

  • χP value adjusted for age and random site effect.

  • *Total daily insulin data missing for 13 case and 7 control subjects; HbA1c data for 1 case subject was excluded due to a falsely low reading as a result of anemia; creatinine level missing for 2 case subjects; C-peptide missing for 2 case subjects; glucose data missing for 2 case subjects; diabetic ketoacidosis hospitalization data missing for 1 case subject.

  • ϮP value obtained using continuous variable.

  • ΠP value adjusted for age, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and random site effect.

  • βObtained from a random blood draw at time of C-peptide measurement.

  • ΦDetectable C-peptide defined as ≥0.017 nmol/L; P value adjusted for T1D duration and diagnosis age.

  • ϦAbnormal creatinine defined as >1.1 mg/dL for females and >1.2 mg/dL for males; P value adjusted for age and T1D duration.

  • ϑIncludes oral and ophthalmologic β-blockers; P value adjusted for age and T1D duration.