Table 1

Participant characteristics

Case subjectsControl subjects
n = 101n = 100P value
Sex: women∫51 (50)44 (44)0.36
Ageµ (years)68.6 ± 6.468.0 ± 5.90.52
 60 to <6532 (32)36 (36)
 65 to <7033 (33)31 (31)
 70 to <7519 (19)20 (20)
 ≥7517 (17)13 (13)
Race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic white∫94 (93)91 (91)0.59
T1D durationµ (years)40.5 ± 11.639.6 ± 11.90.58
 20 to <3022 (22)29 (29)
 30 to <4028 (28)22 (22)
 40 to <5026 (26)23 (23)
 ≥5025 (25)26 (26)
Education*0.62
 Less than high school or high school diploma/GED14 (14)11 (11)
 Some college/associate or bachelor degree59 (59)65 (65)
 Master/professional or doctorate degree27 (27)23 (23)
Insurance*∫ϑ0.35
 Government and commercial 35 (35)37 (37)
 Only commercial 26 (26)34 (34)
 Only government 38 (38)27 (27)
 None1 (1)2 (2)
Income (annual)*0.41
 <$35,00024 (26)22 (26)
 $35,000 to <$50,00012 (13)9 (11)
 $50,000 to <$100,00030 (33)33 (39)
 ≥$100,00026 (28)20 (24)
BMI (kg/m2)*€µ26.9 ± 5.027.0 ± 4.40.94
 Underweight3 (3)
 Normal weight37 (37)37 (38)
 Overweight34 (34)36 (37)
 Obese25 (25)25 (26)
Exercise*µ (days/week)6 (4, 7)5 (4, 7)0.52
Alcohol use*µ (days/month)3.5 (0, 25)2.5 (0, 20)0.64
At least 1 day per month of binge drinking¥∫6 (6)3 (3)0.50
Live alone∫25 (25)22 (22)0.64
  • Categorical variables are shown as n (%) and continuous variables as mean ± SD or median (25th, 75th percentile).

  • P value obtained from χ2 test or Fisher exact test when appropriate.

  • µP value obtained from t test or Wilcoxon test when appropriate.

  • *Education data missing for 1 case and 1 control subject; health insurance data missing for 1 case subject; income data missing for 9 case and 16 control subjects; BMI data missing for 2 case and 2 control subjects; exercise data missing for 2 case subjects; alcohol data missing for 1 case subject.

  • ϑThe government and commercial insurance group includes those with government insurance (Medicare, Medigap, Medicaid, TRICARE, Indian Health Service Plan, State Children's Health Insurance Program, etc.) and commercial insurance (commercial, fee-for-service, health maintenance organization, preferred provider organization, point-of-service) or a single-service plan (e.g., dental, vision, prescriptions). The only commercial insurance group includes those with commercial insurance only, and the only government insurance group includes those with government insurance only.

  • ‡Exercise defined as at least 20 min of physical activity.

  • ¥Binge drinking defined as ≥5 drinks in a row, within a couple of hours.

  • €BMI is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters2; underweight defined as BMI <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight defined as BMI 18.5 to <25.0 kg/m2, overweight defined as BMI 25.0 to <30.0 kg/m2, and obese defined as BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2.