Table 4

Assessments§

Case subjectsControl subjects
n = 101n = 100P value€
Montreal Cognitive Assessment*χ25.2 ± 3.126.1 ± 2.80.04
 <2216 (16)7 (7)
 22–2532 (32)32 (32)
 ≥2652 (52)61 (61)
Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–Total Recall*22.4 ± 5.723.2 ± 5.00.49
 <1927 (27)17 (17)
 19 to <2322 (22)27 (27)
 23 to <2725 (25)27 (27)
 ≥2727 (27)28 (28)
Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–Delayed Recall*χ8.0 (6.0, 10.0)8.5 (7.0, 10.0)0.35
 <623 (23)17 (17)
 6 to <819 (19)17 (17)
 8 to <1028 (28)31 (32)
 ≥1031 (31)33 (34)
Symbol Digit Modalities Test–Written*χ 36.5 ± 10.541.8 ± 10.40.001
 <3229 (30)12 (13)
 32 to <3830 (31)24 (25)
 38 to <4719 (20)26 (27)
 ≥4719 (20)34 (35)
Symbol Digit Modalities Test–Oral*χ42.3 ± 11.746.8 ± 11.00.01
 <3627 (28)15 (16)
 36 to <4430 (31)21 (22)
 44 to <5220 (21)30 (32)
 ≥5220 (21)29 (31)
Trail Making Test–Trail AχϮ39 (30, 47)34 (26, 44)0.06
 <27 s18 (18)29 (29)
 27–35 s23 (23)25 (25)
 36–45 s31 (31)26 (26)
 >45 s29 (29)20 (20)
Trail Making Test–Trail B*χ103 (79, 140)86 (66, 111)0.002
 <71 s18 (18)29 (30)
 71–95 s21 (21)30 (31)
 96–120 s28 (28)21 (22)
 >120 s32 (32)16 (17)
Grooved Pegboard Test (Dominant Hand)*χϮ99 (80, 121)87 (77, 107)0.02
 <80 s20 (20)28 (28)
 80 to <100 s30 (30)40 (40)
 ≥100 s50 (50)31 (31)
Geriatric Depression Scale*χ1 (0, 2)1 (0, 3)0.83
 0–590 (89)86 (87)
 6–97 (7)10 (10)
 ≥104 (4)3 (3)
Diabetes Numeracy Test*χα86.7 (66.7, 93.3)80.0 (66.7, 93.3)0.58
 <70% correct27 (28)25 (26)
 70 to <90% correct34 (35)33 (34)
 ≥90% correct37 (38)40 (41)
Functional Activities Questionnaireχ0 (0, 2)0 (0, 0)0.85
 068 (67)77 (77)
 1–828 (28)19 (19)
 ≥95 (5)4 (4)
Hypoglycemia Fear Survey*χ38.5 ± 12.831.6 ± 11.8<0.001
 <2517 (17)34 (34)
 25 to <3525 (25)28 (28)
 35 to <4522 (22)21 (21)
 ≥4535 (35)16 (16)
Preferring Hypoglycemia Scale (hyperglycemic fear)*12 (12)16 (16)0.42
Duke Social Support Scale*χ 27.5 ± 3.628.4 ± 3.10.04
 11–2523 (23)15 (15)
 26–3056 (56)60 (60)
 31–3321 (21)25 (25)
Frailty 10-Foot Walk*χϑ3.3 (3.0, 4.0)3.0 (3.0, 3.5)0.01
 <3 s18 (18)21 (21)
 3–4 s66 (66)73 (74)
 >4 s16 (16)5 (5)
Colenbrander Reading Card—Lowest LineΦ
 <20/4013 (13)11 (11)0.28
  • Values are shown as n (%), mean ± SD, or median (25th, 75th percentile).

  • §Scoring details: Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test cognitive tests—lower scores indicate reduced capacity; Trail Making and Grooved Pegboard cognitive tests—higher scores indicate reduced capacity; Geriatric Depression Scale—higher scores indicate increased depression; Diabetes Numeracy Test—lower scores represent diminished mathematical skills; Functional Activities Questionnaire—higher scores indicate less functional independence; Hypoglycemia Fear Survey—higher scores indicate more hypoglycemia fear; Duke Social Support—lower scores indicate reduced support; Frailty Walk—higher scores indicate increased physical frailty. Additional scoring details are listed in the Supplementary Data.

  • P value adjusted for age and random site effect.

  • *Montreal Cognitive Assessment data missing for 1 case subject; Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–Total Recall data missing for 1 control subject and –Delayed Recall data missing for 2 control subjects; Symbol Digit Modalities Test–Written data missing for 4 case and 4 control subjects and –Oral data missing for 4 case and 5 control subjects; Trail Making Test–Trail B data missing for 2 case and 4 control subjects; Grooved Pegboard data missing for 1 case and 1 control subject; Geriatric Depression Scale data missing for 1 control subject; Diabetes Numeracy Test data missing for 3 case and 2 control subjects; Hypoglycemia Fear Survey data missing for 2 case subjects and 1 control subject; Preferring Hypoglycemia Scale (hyperglycemic fear) data missing for 2 case subjects; Duke Social Support Index data missing for 1 case subject; Frailty Walk data missing for 1 case and 1 control subject.

  • χP value obtained using continuous variable.

  • ϮDue to extreme outliers, rank scores used to obtain P value.

  • αP value adjusted for insulin method (pump vs. injections), in addition to age and site.

  • ϑP value adjusted for use of assistive devices during the test, in addition to age and site.

  • ΦEnglish Continuous Text Near Vision Card; P value obtained from treating reading vision as an ordinal variable and adjusting for visual aids used during the test (such as a magnifying glass), in addition to age and site.